Levamisole

Chemical class Imidazthiazole
Chemical Structure Chemical structure of Levamisole
CAS Number 14769-73-4
Mode of action Nicotinic receptor agonist
Target pests Gastrointestinal parasites
Hosts Cats, dogs, aviary birds, sheep and lambs, pigs and poultry
Formulations Oral solution/suspension, oral tablet, misc. vaccines or anti sera, topical solution/suspension, oral powder, pre-mix, and oral syrup
Home vet use Yes
No of Australian Approvals and Registrations 2 active constituents, 85 products
Poison schedule

Schedule 4

  1. For human therapeutic use; or
  2. In preparations for the prevention or treatment of heartworm in dogs.

Schedule 5

Levamisole in preparations containing 15 per cent or less of levamisole for the treatment of animals except:

  1. When included in Schedule 4; or
  2. In preparations for the treatment of ornamental birds or ornamental fish, in packs containing 10 mg or less of levamisole.

Schedule 6

Levamisole for the treatment of animals except:

  1. When included in Schedule 4 or 5; or
In preparations for the treatment of ornamental birds or ornamental fish, in packs containing 10 mg or less of levamisole
Australian Health-based guidance values

ADI: 0.003 mg/kg bw per day (1974)

No Australian ARfD established

Key issues

  • Preliminary dietary intake estimates of residues indicate an exceedance of the ADI.
  • Consideration of the need to establish an Australian ARfD to assess acute dietary risks.
  • There have been a large number of adverse experience reports in animals (majority in sheep) due to the narrow therapeutic window.

Stakeholder perspective

  • Levamisole is an important and cost-effective anthelmintic and paraciticide. Barbers Pole vaccination should not be viewed as an alternative to levamisole.
  • Pest resistance to levamisole is known to have developed in cattle and sheep. It is said to be less efficacious in wool production in some regions due to resistance. However, this chemical is still considered important where drench resistance to other chemicals has developed.

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