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|Chemical class||Dithiocarbamates—group includes mancozeb, metiram, propineb, thiram, zineb and ziram|
|CAS Number||Mancozeb (8018-01-7), Metiram (9006-42-2), Propineb (12071-83-9), Thiram (137-26-8), Zineb (12122-67-7), Ziram (137-30-4)|
|Mode of action||M3—Multi-site activity|
Weeds—winter grass and fat hen
Soil-borne pests—nematodes and symphilidsFungal diseases—rhizoctonia, pythium, phytophthora, sclerotinia and clubroot of crucifers
|Hosts||Various ornamental, food (fruit, vegetables, rice) and fibre crops, turf|
|Formulations||Wetable powder, water dispersible granules, dry flowable, soluble powder, suspension concentrate (flowable concentrate), granular, dust, dry flowable, suspoemulsion, flowable concentrate for seed dressing, paint and aqueous concentrate|
|Home garden use||Yes|
|No of Australian Approvals and Registrations||
Mancozeb—14 active constituents, 70 products
Metiram—1 active constituent, 3 products
Propineb—1 active constituent, 2 products
Thiram—6 active constituents, 28 products
Zineb—2 active constituents, 2 productsZiram—2 active constituents, 4 products
Thiram except in paint containing 0.5 per cent or less of thiram.
Ziram—Schedule 6Ziram in granular preparations
|Australian Health-based guidance values||
Mancozeb: ADI – 0.006 mg/kg bw per day (1992)
Metiram: ADI – 0.02 mg/kg bw per day (1988)
Propineb: ADI – 0.0005 mg/kg bw per day (2007)
Thiram: ADI – 0.004 mg/kg bw per day (1995)
Zineb: ADI – 0.005 mg/kg bw per day (1992)
Ziram: ADI – 0.01 mg/kg bw per day (1995)
Mancozeb, metiram, zineb and ziram – No Australian ARfD established
Propineb: ARfD – 2 mg/kg bw (2010)Thiram: ARfD – 0.1 mg/kg bw (2010)
- The risk posed by members of this group can be cumulative based on a common mechanism of toxicological action and therefore it is important that the group is looked at as a whole. For example, mancozeb, maneb and metiram are known to cause thyroid toxicity by the formation of a common metabolite - ethylene thiourea (ETU). Because of this common metabolite involved, cumulative risk needs to be considered.
- Dietary exposure estimates indicate an exceedance of the ADI for some of the dithiocarbamates. It would be beneficial to establish a group ADI to allow refinement of the dietary exposure assessment.
- Some dithiocarbamates do not have an Australian ARfD. Preliminary calculations using European values indicate acute dietary intake concerns.
- Some dithiocarbamates are used repeatedly in a crop growing season and therefore workers will be exposed repeatedly. Current labels lack limits on repeated applications or combinations with other dithiocarbamates.
- There have been multiple residue detections exceeding MRLs.
- Dithiocarbamates are highly important for pest management in many horticulture crops.
- In pulse crops, dithiocarbamates are important for integrated pest management (IPM) and are used in rotation with chlorothalinol and triazoles.
- Dithiocarbamates are also used for seed treatment in post-entry quarantine situations
- Access to these chemicals needs to be maintained.