This content is current only at the time of printing. This document was printed on 16 September 2019. A current copy is located at https://apvma.gov.au/node/10851
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System to prioritise nominated chemicals for review
Agricultural and veterinary chemicals nominated for review by the APVMA are given an order of priority according to the level of concern that led to the nomination. This priority is based on advice received from APVMA’s external advisory agencies: the Department of the Environment and the Office of Chemical Safety, as well as from the APVMA’s own experts in residue chemistry and target animal or plant safety and efficacy. Chemicals prioritised for review are listed in the priority candidate review list (PCRL).
The APVMA and its external advisory agencies use a scoring process to prioritise nominated chemicals for review, based on key criteria of concern including human health (toxicology and occupational health and safety), environment, residues and trade, and target crop and animal safety and efficacy. The priority for each chemical nomination is determined by assessing it against each of the criteria and evaluating the outcomes. The PCRL provides an indication of the chemicals with the higher levels of concern or chemicals that have been assessed as being of concern by multiple agencies.
Human health (toxicology and occupational health and safety)
Chemicals that are nominated for review are assessed for their effect on human health against the following criteria:
- Special concerns
- demonstrated or potential adverse effects in humans
- Acute and chronic risk
- scheduling of the chemical
- exposure to the chemical from food
- Regulatory action taken overseas (for example, Canada, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States of America)
- non-hazardous substances
- hazardous substances
- other toxicity (health hazard)
- industrial exposure in Australia
- form of concentrated chemical (includes formulated products)
- exposure to working strength chemical (mixing, loading or application)
- frequency of application
- post-application exposure (handling of treated crops and animals).
- User exposure
Chemicals that are nominated for review are assessed for their effect on the environment against the following criteria:
- Environmental exposure
- form and method of application
- volume of use (kilograms per annum)
- scale of use (hectares per annum)
- persistence (soil or aquatic half-life)
- bioaccumulation potential
- mobility or leaching potential
- Environmental toxicity
- aquatic toxicity
- terrestrial bird or mammalian toxicity
- terrestrial plant toxicity
- other non-target organisms
- Sensitivity of receiving environment
- Demonstrated adverse effects
- Regulatory action taken overseas on environmental grounds (for example, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Canadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency, or the European Union.)
Residues and trade
Chemicals that are nominated for review are assessed for their impact on residues and trade against the following criteria:
- Absence of maximum residue limits
- Reported incidents of residue violations
- Reported incidents of adverse effects on trade
- Compatibility with other countries' maximum residue limits
- International regulatory action
- Residues resulting from use according to the label and the appropriateness of existing directions (for example, hydroponics versus field use).
Note: Dietary exposure is considered under human health.
Chemicals that are nominated for review are assessed for their efficacy against the following criterion:
- Lack of efficacy (confirmed report(s) of serious incident(s) of chemical failure; substantial incidents of chemical failure).
Target animal and crop safety
Chemicals that are nominated for review are assessed for their effect on target animal and crop safety against the following criteria:
- Reported incidents of phytotoxicity and adverse interactions with target crops
- Reported incidents of adverse effects to treated target animals.