Definition of terms

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Name Description Related terms
abiotic factors

Parameters that are not directly dependent on the activity of an organism (eg light, temperature, humidity).


Erosion of a coating (term used in relation to antifouling products).


Wearing away by rubbing, grinding, scraping, etc.


Something that grinds down or wears away an object. Wettable powders may be abrasive on equipment such as nozzles.


A measure of wear on a surface.


Leaf or fruit fall following the formation of an abscission or separation layer at the base of the leaf petiole or fruit stem. Process by which leaves, stems or fruit are separated from the parent plant.


To soak up or drink in, such as when a pesticide or other material is taken into a plant, animal or soil.

absorbed dose

The amount of chemical that, after contact with the exchange boundary (skin, lungs, gut), actually penetrates the exchange boundary and enters the circulatory system. The amount may be the same or less than the applied dose.


A substance that is able to soak up and hold a liquid or gas.


The incorporation of one substance into another. For instance, movement of a chemical into a plant, animal or the soil. Plants absorb through leaves, stems or roots, while animals absorb through the digestive tract, skin, breathing organs, mucous membranes and eyes.

With reference to the skin, dermal absorption describes the transport of chemicals from the outer surface of the skin both into the skin and into the systemic circulation. Dermal absorption can occur from occupational, environmental, or consumer skin exposure to chemicals, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. Absorption also occurs through the respiratory tract.

Compare with 'adsorption'.

absorptive clay

A type of clay powder that can soak up chemicals and hold them. This type of clay is sometimes used to clean up pesticide spills.


A pesticide for killing mites, ticks and spiders (order Acarina).


An order of invertebrate animals with eight legs.

accelerated stability testing

Testing designed to increase the rate of chemical or physical degradation of a product by using exaggerated storage conditions.

acceptable daily intake (ADI)

The estimate of the amount of a chemical in food or drinking water, expressed on a body-weight basis, that can be ingested daily over a lifetime without appreciable health risk to the consumer. It is derived from all the known facts at the time of the evaluation. The ADI is expressed in milligrams of the chemical per kilogram of body weight (a standard adult person weighs 60 kg). It is applied to food additives, residues of pesticides and residues of veterinary chemicals in food.

acceptance criteria

The numerical limits, ranges or other suitable measures used to determine acceptance of the results of analytical procedures.


The adjustment of an organism to changes in its environment. Some experimental protocols include an acclimatisation period when animals are introduced to the study environment.


To build up, add to, store or pile up.


The closeness of agreement between the true value and the mean result from an analytical method, which would be obtained by applying the experimental procedure a very large number of times. This is generally expressed as per cent recovery or per cent bias.

acetylcholine (ACh or AChe)

Chemical transmitter of nerve and nerve—muscle impulses between nerves and across nerve—muscle junctions. In normal nerve activity acetylcholine is hydrolysed by the enzyme cholinesterase after each impulse.

acid equivalent

The amount of an active constituent, expressed in terms of the parent organic acid contained in a given salt or ester formulation.

acidifying or buffering agent

A solution that lowers the pH of a spray solution (ie makes solutions more acidic). The majority of herbicides are most stable when the pH of the solution is between 6 and 7 (neutral or slightly acidic).

action limit

In relation to Good Manufacturing Practice, the established criterion (such as a microbiological count or a monitor reading) that requires immediate corrective action if exceeded. It is frequently used in conjunction with 'alert limit'.

activated carbon
activated charcoal

An emergency decontaminant for the gastrointestinal tract. A fine black powder that is odourless, tasteless and non-toxic. Activated charcoal can reduce absorption of poisonous substances (when accidentally or inadvertently swallowed) by up to 60 per cent. The charcoal is 'activated' because it is produced to have a very fine particle size. Acid and steam are applied to carbonaceous materials to produce charcoal powder with a large overall surface area and greatly enhanced adsorptive capacity. Also known as 'activated carbon'.


A process of chemical modification within an organism that makes a compound more toxic.


A material added to a pesticide to increase its potency.

active constituent

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

In relation to a proposed or existing agricultural chemical product or veterinary chemical product, means the substance that is, or one of the substances that together are, primarily responsible for the biological or other effect identifying the product as an agricultural chemical product or a veterinary chemical product, as the case may be.

The active constituent is the component (or components) of an agvet chemical product that is primarily responsible for giving the product its biological or other effect and that makes it an agricultural or veterinary chemical product. A chemical product may contain more than one active constituent.

active constituent number

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

active ingredient
actual dosage

The amount of an active constituent (not formulated product) that is applied to an area, animal or other target.


Having rapid onset and short duration, usually characterised by sharpness or severity.

Compare with 'chronic'.

acute dermal toxicity

A measure of the poisonous effect of a single dose (or exposure) of an agricultural or veterinary chemical product absorbed through the skin.

acute ecotoxicity

The adverse effects of a substance that are experienced by an organism over a relatively short period (generally up to 10 per cent of the expected life span of the organism). Acute ecotoxicity testing usually has lethal effects as its end-points, being death.

acute effect

A rapid (within 24—96 hours) effect of a chemical substance or agent on an organism.

acute inhalation toxicity

A measure of the poisonous effect of a single dose (or exposure) of an agricultural or veterinary chemical product absorbed through the lungs.

acute oral LD50

In toxicity studies, the single dosage fed to test animals that will kill 50 per cent of the animals.

acute oral toxicity

A measure of the toxicological effect of a single dose (or exposure) of an agricultural or veterinary chemical product taken by mouth (eaten, swallowed, licked, etc.).

acute poisoning

A serious adverse reaction that occurs after a single dose (or exposure) to an agricultural or veterinary chemical product.

acute reference dose (ARfD)

An estimate of a substance in food or drinking water, expressed on body weight basis, that can be ingested over a short period of time, usually during one meal or one day, without appreciable health risk to the consumer on the basis of all known facts at the time

The ARfD is expressed as milligrams per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg bw)

acute toxicity

Toxicity that occurs following a single exposure or dose administered for a period of 24 hours or less.

acute toxicity testing

Experimental studies designed to analyse the acute toxicity of a substance.

additive effect

A consequence that follows exposure to two or more physicochemical agents that act jointly but do not interact. The total effect is the simple sum of the effects of separate exposures to the agents under the same conditions.

additive or additive ingredient

A chemical moiety that is covalently bound to a large molecule such as DNA or protein.


From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

In relation to instructions on a label for containers for a chemical product, means adequate to ensure, as far as reasonably practicable, that the product meets the safety criteria, the trade criteria and the efficacy criteria.

adequate infection

Natural or induced infection level defined in a study protocol that will allow the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness of a veterinary chemical product by comparison of treated and untreated (control) animals.


The property of a substance that describes its ability to stick to a surface.


An adjuvant that helps a pesticide to stick to a treated surface. Its value in the field is not clearly proven, even for fungicides, where it is mainly used.


A substance other than water, without significant pesticidal properties, that is added to a product to improve its storage stability or to enhance (or is intended to enhance) the efficacy of the product, for example to improve contact and penetration. At application, the adjuvant is added to the spray tank with the pesticide product and may include a substance such as an adhesive, emulsifier, penetrant, spreader or wetting agent to improve dispersion and handling properties.

A substance given in combination with an antigen that augments the immune response to that antigen.

adjuvant (vaccine)

Agent which increases the stimulation of the immune system by enhancing antigen presentation (depot formulation, delivery systems) and/or by providing co-stimulation signals (immunomodulators). Aluminium salts are most often used in today’s vaccines.

Admin Act

The process that binds a substance in the form of a surface film of molecules of a gas or a dissolved or suspended substance on the surface of a solid. For example, adsorption of particles of dust to a leaf, an increase in the concentration of a pesticide at the interface of soil colloidal clay or organic matter, or adsorption of gases to charcoal in the filter of a gas mask.

Compare with 'absorption'.

adulterated product

An agricultural or veterinary chemical product whose quality, strength or purity falls below the standard stated on its label.

A food, feed or product that contains illegal pesticide residues.

Adventitious (extraneous) agent

Unwanted agent that is accidently incorporated into a vaccine.

adventitious roots

Roots arising elsewhere than from a tap root, for example roots along a stem or those developed from a stem or leaf cutting.

adverse effect

The change in morphology, physiology, growth, development or life span of an organism that results in impairment of functional capacity, impairment of capacity to compensate for additional stress, or increase in susceptibility to the harmful effects of other environmental influences.

An undesirable or harmful effect to an organism, indicated by some result such as mortality, altered food consumption, altered body and organ weights, altered enzyme levels or visible pathological change.

adverse event

In good clinical practice, any observation that is unfavourable and unintended and occurs after the use of a known or proposed veterinary chemical product, whether or not it is considered to be product related.

Adverse experience

An unintended or unexpected effect on plants, plant products, animals, human beings or the environment, or lack of efficacy, associated with the use of a registered agricultural or veterinary chemical product when used according to label instructions.

advisory agencies

Australian Government agencies, state and territory departments of agriculture and other specialist external organisations that provide advice to the APVMA in relation to the evaluation of product registrations, or provide specialist input to chemical reviews.

Advisory Board

Established under the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Administration Act 1992, the Advisory Board provides advice and makes recommendations to the Chief Executive Officer in relation to APVMA business.

Advisory Committee on Chemicals Scheduling (ACCS)

A committee within the Department of Health that is responsible for the scheduling of veterinary medicines, agricultural chemicals and industrial chemicals. One of the committees (along with the Advisory Committee on Medicines Scheduling) that replaced the National Drugs and Poisons Scheduling Committee in 2010.

Advisory Committee on Medicines Scheduling (ACMS)

A committee within the Department of Health that is responsible for the scheduling of human medicines. One of the committees (along with the Advisory Committee on Chemicals Scheduling) that replaced the National Drugs and Poisons Scheduling Committee in 2010.

aerial application

The spraying of crops with chemical pesticides from an agricultural aircraft—commonly a converted, highly manoeuvrable fixed-wing aircraft, but occasionally a helicopter.


An organism needing free oxygen for survival and growth.


Living in air, or associated with the presence of free oxygen.

Opposite of 'anaerobic'.


A product type consisting of an active constituent and a liquefied or compressed gas as a propellant, in a container with a suitable valve. The active constituent is expelled as finely-divided liquid spray, fog or mist or as solid particles (the majority of which are less than 0.5 micrometres [µm] in diameter), which may remain suspended in air for several hours Aerosols are developed and marketed primarily for use in domestic, commercial or industrial situations (eg as drift sprays of flying insects).

The APVMA formulation type code for aerosol is AE.

aerosol dispenser

A container holding a pressurised formulation that produces aerosol spray due to volatilisation of a propellant when a valve is opened. Aerosol cans are a common means of dispensing insecticides for domestic use.


The science of the cause of disease and the study of causal factors, their nature and relationships with the host. Alternative spelling: 'etiology'.


in relation to an application

A person who acts for, or in place of, someone else and who has authority to do so from the person they are representing.

in relation to a chemical

Any chemical, physical or biological substance or factor being assessed.


Particles bound firmly together.


An antibody that causes a particular antigen to clump and settle out of suspension.


Particles adhering loosely together.

aggregate exposure

Sum of all exposure routes to pesticides (i.e. inhalation, dermal, oral or ocular).

aggregate sample

A representative portion of incremental samples taken from the same lot.


To keep an agricultural or veterinary chemical product formulation mixed up, and to prevent the formulation from separating out or settling in a tank or other container. Usually achieved by stirring or shaking.


The process of stirring or mixing a chemical product in a tank or container to prevent separation or settling of the formulation.

agitation system

An in-tank or in-vat system consisting of a paddle or other mechanical device, air, or hydraulic action, to keep a pesticide formulation mixed in the tank. Agitation is especially important to achieve uniform application when using a suspension concentrate formulation.


A paddle (or other mechanical device), air or hydraulic action used to keep an agricultural or veterinary chemical product mixed in a tank or other container to ensure uniform distribution of the components of the formulation and prevent sedimentation.


A drug that has an affinity for and stimulates physiologic activity at cell receptors normally stimulated by naturally occurring substances.

agricultural area

Fallow and cultivated land for cropping and pastures, including natural pastures.

agricultural buildings

Includes storage buildings, silos, hay sheds, milking shed, piggeries, intensive animal houses, barns, poultry sheds and machinery sheds.

agricultural chemical product

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Has the meaning given by section 4 [of the Agvet Code].

A substance or mixture of substances that is represented, imported, manufactured, supplied or used as a means of directly or indirectly:

  • destroying, stupefying, repelling, inhibiting the feeding of, or preventing infestation by or attacks of, any pest in relation to a plant, place or thing
  • destroying a plant
  • modifying the physiology of a plant or pest so as to alter its natural development, productivity, quality or reproductive capacity
  • modifying an effect of another agricultural chemical product, or
  • attracting a pest for the purpose of destroying it.

An agricultural chemical product includes a substance or mixture of substances declared by the Agvet Code Regulations to be an agricultural chemical product (see Part 2 of Schedule 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations ).

An agricultural chemical product does not include:

agricultural chemical products
agricultural commodity

Any plant or part of a plant, animal or animal product that is to be bought or sold; sometimes called a 'raw agricultural commodity' if it is unprocessed.

agricultural non-crop areas

Land associated with farmland, but not used for cultivation and/or regular grazing.

agricultural products

For an agricultural product to be considered similar to a reference product:

  • its active constituent(s) must be the same substance(s)—ie the same APVMA-approved active constituent(s)
  • its formulation type must be the same as that of the reference product, and
  • its label must mention the same crops or situations and pests (ie no additional uses) as on the label of the reference product and must include similar use and precautionary or safety instructions as on the reference product (there may be fewer or reduced claims compared with the reference product).


agricultural products

For an agricultural product to be considered closely similar to a reference product:

  • its active constituent(s) must be the same substance(s)—ie the same APVMA-approved active constituent(s)—as in the reference product and the concentration of its active constituent(s) must be the same as in the reference product
  • other ingredients in the formulation of the product may be different from those in the reference product, but must perform similar functions (eg emulsifier, surfactant, dye, solvent)
  • its formulation type must be the same as that of the reference product, and

its label must mention the same crops or situations and pests (ie no additional uses) as on the label of the reference product and must include similar use and precautionary/safety instructions.


Agricultural and veterinary.

Agvet chemical
Agvet Chemical Regulation Committee

A committee consisting of members from all states, territories and the Australian and New Zealand governments, responsible for developing overarching policy for the National Registration Scheme.

Agvet Code

The Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Code scheduled to the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Code Act 1994.

Agvet Code Regulations

Agvet Code Regulations means the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Code Regulations 1995.

agvet law

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

  1. the Agvet Code of this, or another, jurisdiction, or
  2. the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemical Products (Collection of Levy) Act 1994 , or
  3. the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (Administration) Act 1992 .
agvet legislation
agvet penalty provision

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

  1. a civil penalty provision of the Agvet Code of this, or another, jurisdiction, or
  2. a civil penalty provision of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemical Products (Collection of Levy) Act 1994 , or
  3. a civil penalty provision of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (Administration) Act 1992 .
air blast nozzle

Nozzle using high-velocity air to break up liquid supplied at low pressure.

air blast sprayer

A machine designed to apply low to medium volumes of spray using small droplets between 30—350 micrometres in size. Often used for spraying orchards, shade trees and vegetables, and for fly control.

Also known as an 'air-assisted sprayer'.

air carried spray

Spray propelled to a target in an airstream.

air lock

An enclosed space with two or more doors (only one of which is opened at any one time) that is interposed between two or more areas (eg of differing classes of cleanliness), for the purpose of controlling the airflow between those rooms when they need to be entered.

air pressure

The pressure exerted by the Earth's atmosphere at a given point on the surface of the Earth.

air shear system

A system in which high-velocity (more than 300 kilometres per hour) air is used to break up a stream of liquid into small droplets and direct the movement of these droplets. Air shear systems (machines) are also called misters and are used to apply insecticides and fungicides.

air-assisted sprayer
airborne concentration

The amount of chemical per unit volume of air. Typically this refers to the volume or mass concentration of chemical, but it can refer to the number of spray drops.

alert limit

In relation to Good Manufacturing Practice, an established criterion (such as a microbiological count or monitor reading) that gives early warning of potential drift from normal conditions. Alert limits are not necessarily grounds for definitive corrective action, but require follow-up investigation.

algicide or algaecide

A pesticide used to control algae, especially in pools and stored or industrial water supplies.

aliquot size

A sample (known volume) taken to determine the concentration of a substance, the level of infection, etc.


Substances that are caustic or alkaline and neutralise, or are neutralised by acids, eg sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), ammonium hydroxide (ammonia liquor), potassium hydroxide (caustic potash).

alternate host

One of two kinds of plants on which a parasitic fungus (eg rust) must develop to complete its life cycle.


A class of organic compounds that contain a functional group derived from ammonia by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with a hydrocarbon group (such as an alkyl or aryl group. Some herbicides (e.g. 2,4-D and MCPA) are formulated as amine salts, which makes them more water soluble.


Non-crystalline; having no definite shape.


A component of metabolism; specifically, formation of an organism's constituents.


An organism able to survive and grow without free oxygen.


Living where there is no air (or free oxygen).

Opposite of 'aerobic'.


In chemistry, a compound similar in structure to another compound, but differing in some slight structural detail.


In relation to chemistry, the process of determining the composition of substances, and the figures and results obtained about the composition of a substance.

analysis of variance (ANOVA)

A statistical methodology that analyses the differences between group means and variation within and between groups.


The chemical constituent that is of interest in a given analytical procedure.

analytical reference standard

A substance of established quality and purity.

analytical sensitivity

The minimum quantity of a chemical that can be detected in a sample by a given chemical or physico-chemical method.

ancillary panel(s)

The panel, or panels, of a label other than the main panel. Ancillary panels generally contain information relating to general instructions, directions for use, protection statements, safety directions, first aid instructions, storage instructions and disposal.

Ancillary panels

The ability to cause aneuploidy.


Numerical deviation of the modal number of chromosomes in a cell or organism, other than an extra or reduced number of complete sets of chromosomes.

angle of contact

The angle that the edge of a liquid droplet forms relative to the plane surface of a solid, including plant surfaces, on which the droplet rests.


From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means any animal (other than a human being), whether vertebrate or not, and whether a food-producing species or not, and includes:

  1. mammals, birds, bees, reptiles, amphibians, fish, crustaceans and molluscs, and
  2. (b) the semen, ova or embryo of an animal (other than a human being) or any other substance or thing directly relevant to the reproduction of an animal (other than a human being), and
  3. (c) any other prescribed form of animal life, whether prescribed by reference to a species or in any other way.
animal feedstuff

Harvested fodder crops, by-products of agricultural crops and other products of plant or animal origin that are not destined or used for human consumption and that are intended to be fed to animals.

animal welfare
anionic surfactant agent

Adjuvant in which the active portion of the molecule, containing the hydrophilic and lipophilic segments, forms a positive ion (anion) when placed in solution. Examples of anionic surfactant agents are fatty acid soap, alkyl sulfonic acid salts, and fatty alcohol sulfate.


A plant that grows from a seed, produces flowers, fruit or seed in the same year and then dies.


Shaped like a ring.


Depleted of free oxygen; anaerobic.


Opposing action of different chemicals, organisms or groups of organisms such that the action of one is impaired or the total effect is less than that of the two components used separately.


The agent that opposes (blocks or counteracts) the action of another agent, such that the total effect is less than the sum of the two effects taken independently.


A chemical that is administered to an animal by any means to reduce or control its internal helminth parasite populations.

anti-drift agent

A compound added to pesticides to reduce the number of fine droplets produced at the spray nozzle.

anti-frothing agent

Material that prevents frothing of a pesticide when it is agitated strongly after being combined with water or some other diluent.

anti-siphoning device

A small piece of equipment attached to the filling hose to prevent fill water from draining back into the water source.


A substance that coats the leaves of a plant to reduce water loss.

antibiotic resistance

A property of bacteria that enables them to grow in the presence of antibiotic concentrations that would normally kill or suppress the growth of susceptible bacteria.


Antibiotics are substances produced by micro-organisms which are antagonistic in high dilution to the growth and viability of other micro-organisms.

Examples of antibiotics are tetracyclines, macrolides and lincomycin (all derived from Streptomyces sp.); bacitracin (derived from Bacillus sp.); and penicillin and cephalosporin (both derived from fungi).


A protein produced by the immune system that identifies and neutralises the action of parasites and their products, pathogens or foreign materials.

Antibody (immunoglobulin)

A protein found in the blood that is produced in response to foreign substances (e.g. bacteria or viruses) invading the body. Antibodies protect the body from disease by binding to these organisms and destroying them

anticholinesterase compounds

Compounds that inhibit the enzyme cholinesterase. Examples are the organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, eg acephate, temephos, diazinon.


A substance that prevents the normal clotting of blood. The type of active constituent found in some rodenticides.


An immediate or first aid treatment or remedy to offset the toxic effects of an agricultural or veterinary chemical product or other poison in the body. Also applies to chemicals used to counteract the phytotoxic effect of some pesticides.

antifouling product or antifoulant or antifouling paint

A surface coating that inhibits the colonisation by aquatic organisms of a surface submerged in water or intermittently in contact with water (splash zone).


A substance that, when introduced into an animal body, stimulates the production of another substance (antibody) antagonistic to the foreign substance.

Foreign substances (e.g. bacteria or viruses) in the body that are capable of causing disease. The presence of antigens in the body triggers an immune response, usually the production of antibodies


The capacity of an antigen to induce an immune response and stimulate the production of antibodies.

Also called immunogenicity


An antimicrobial is an agent used in chemotherapy of bacterial, fungal, protozoal or viral infections and include antibiotics, synthetic chemicals and semi-synthetic chemicals.

Examples of synthetic antimicrobials include the sulphonamides and trimethoprim.

Examples of semi-synthetic antimicrobials are amoxyicillin and cloxacillin.


A substance for use on an animal to kill microorganisms or to restrict the growth of microorganisms to below a level that may cause clinical infection. Recommended for dermal application or application to the mucous membranes of an animal, and not represented to be suitable for internal use.


Serum that contains antibodies.

anvil nozzle

Nozzle in which a liquid jet strikes a smooth solid surface at a high angle of incidence.


A pesticide (insecticide) used to control sap-sucking insects on plants, in particular aphids or plant lice.


A small sap-sucking insect that may carry plant viral diseases.


A place where colonies of bees are intentionally kept for the sake of their pollinating activities and/or production of honey and other related products (eg beeswax, propolis).

Apostille certificate

An Apostille Certificate is an official government certificate printed or stamped onto the reverse side of a single-page document, or attached to multiple-paged documents with green notary ribbon that makes it one inseparable document. It authenticates the seal and/or signature of the public official or authority, such as a Notary Public or registrar, issuing the document. A Notary Public in Australia is a public official appointed by law, inter alia, to witness signatures or certify copied documents for international use. When a Notary Public signs, seals or stamps a document, that document then becomes a public document capable of being apostilled or legalised. An issued Apostille Certificate confirms that the person signing, sealing or stamping a public document has lawful authority to do so, and the apostilled document automatically becomes a legal document in countries that are members of the Hague Convention. It does not authenticate or confirm the contents of a document.

apparent density

A person (individual or body corporate) who makes an application to the APVMA for an approval, registration, permit or licence. Applicants may either be an existing or prospective holder of the approval, registration, permit or licence. Applicants may also be an authorised agent of a person, or an existing or proposed nominated agent.


In relation to the use of agricultural and veterinary chemical products, the putting or directing of an agricultural or veterinary chemical product on or into plants, animals, buildings, soil, air, water or another site (target) with a suitable apparatus so that they are able to achieve their biological or other effect.

Also, under s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means an application under [the Agvet] Code.

An application made to the APVMA under the Agvet Code.

Application information details

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

For an item of information contained in or accompanying an application, means the following details:

  1. the title shown on the item of information (if any)
  2. the name of the author, or each of the authors, of the information
  3. the date shown on the item of information (if any)
  4. if no date is shown on the item of information—the date when the preparation of the information was completed
  5. if the information was published:
    1. the date when it was published, and
    2. the name of the publication in which it was published
  6. a unique identifier for the item of information that indicates location of the item in the application [such as the volume and page number where an item of information is located in the application]
  7. the name and address of the authorising party for the information.
application number

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

For an application mentioned in section 11(2)(b) or 28(2)(b) of the [Agvet] Code , means the number that the APVMA gives to the application after the application is lodged.

application rate

For an agricultural chemical product, mass of pesticide-active constituent applied over a specific area or per unit volume of an environmental component (eg air, water, soil).

For a veterinary chemical product, the concentration of an active constituent of a veterinary chemical product that is applied in or on an animal or provided for consumption or contact by an animal. May also include the frequency that a veterinary chemical product is applied.

application requirements

As prescribed in section 8A of the Agvet Code , the requirements that must be met both for an application to pass preliminary assessment and for the APVMA to make a final decision.

application site

Agricultural or defined non-agricultural area where pesticide treatment is applied. In the case of spray application, the site needs to be identified and mapped in a spray plan, with boundaries defined to ensure appropriate protective buffer zones are implemented.

application summary

A record of the main points of an application that is published when the APVMA determines that an application has passed preliminary assessment. The summary must include details prescribed by the regulations for inclusion in the notice.


A person who, or a piece of equipment that, applies an agricultural or veterinary chemical product.

applied dose

Amount of an agent presented to an absorption barrier and available for absorption. The amount may be the same or more than the absorbed dose.


From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means approval under Part 2 [of the Agvet Code ] of:

  1. an active constituent for a proposed or existing chemical product, or
  2. a label for containers for a chemical product.

Subject to certain exceptions, the term also includes re-approval when used in relation to an active constituent.

approved active constituent

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means an active constituent that complies with the relevant particulars set out in the Record for the constituent.

approved analyst

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means a person appointed under subsection 69G(1) of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (Administration) Act 1992 to be an approved analyst for the purposes of [the Agvet] Code .

approved form

From s. 3 of Agvet Code:

Means a form approved by the APVMA or prescribed by the [Agvet Code] regulations .

approved label

A label that is approved and complies with the relevant particulars recorded in the relevant APVMA file for the label.

approved supplier

In relation to Good Manufacturing Practice, a supplier of starting materials of known origin who is recognised as reliable based on a history of deliveries that all met specifications and were well-packaged and intact on receipt and, where possible, based also on vendor audit.


From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

Means the Chief Executive Officer of the APVMA.

APVMA Gazette

The Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals, published fortnightly (with additional special gazettes published from time to time). Available from the APVMA website

APVMA standard
aquacultural pond

Aquacultural ponds can be grouped into four main categories: land-based static systems, land-based flow-through systems, marine onshore systems, and closed or recirculation systems.


The growing of aquatic organisms under controlled conditions, usually for human consumption. Aquaculture products include traditional fish species, aquatic animals and plants, and may also include eggs, larvae or fingerlings, brood-stock, ornamental species (aquatic plants and fish), and industrial or cosmetic products.

aquatic area(s)

Includes irrigation channels, streams, rivers, lakes, dams, drains and drainage ditches.


Indicates that water is present, especially in solution (as in aqueous solution).

The APVMA formulation type code for aqueous suspension concentrate is SC.

aqueous concentrate

A concentrated solution of the active constituent in water with or without the addition of adjuvants. This solution may normally be diluted with water to the concentration recommended for application.

The APVMA formulation type code for aqueous concentrate is AC.

arable land

All land suitable for agricultural use (cultivation). The term is broadly used in agriculture for land that can potentially be cultivated and bear crops, be used for the production of forage crops, or be established as pasture.


A chemical used for killing trees or woody weeds.


relevant argument

Arithmetic mean

A simple average of a set of values that is calculated by dividing the sum of the values by the number of values in the set, to give a central tendency or value for the set of values. The use of the arithmetic mean is appropriate in statistical analyses and not in others. Because of the properties of certain types of distributions (eg skewed distributions of parasites), the arithmetic mean is sometimes unsuitable and the geometric mean should be used instead. The arithmetic mean is highly susceptible to the effects of outliers and where this is a typical feature of the values, the arithmetic mean is a less robust statistic than the geometric mean.

aromatic solvent

A solvent derived from coal distillation or petrochemical sources that contains a high proportion of benzene substitutes. An aromatic solvent is capable of dissolving a wide range of substances. Examples of aromatic solvents are toluene and xylene.


Pesticides that contain arsenic.


Invertebrate animals (phylum Arthropoda) with jointed legs and a hard external skeleton, eg insects, spiders, crustaceans and millipedes.

artificial respiration
as merchandise or commodities

Free of disease-causing organisms.

asexual reproduction

Vegetative reproduction from plant parts other than seeds (or from spores), produced by simple budding as the imperfect stage of certain fungi eg yeasts.

assessment factor

The numerical adjustment used to extrapolate from experimentally determined (dose—response) relationships to estimate the exposure to an agent below which an adverse effect is not likely to occur.


The absorption, transformation and incorporation of substances by an organism or ecosystem. The transformation of absorbed nutrients into body substances.

at cracking

In relation to the application of a herbicide, a time when the soil is beginning to crack from the emerging crop seedlings.

at emergence

In relation to the application of a treatment, a time during the visible emerging phase of the specified crop or weed.

atmospheric stability

A measure of combined effects of turbulence or thermal currents, wind speed, temperature and relative humidity (water vapour).


The rendering of a substance into a state or condition of very fine subdivision. The term is generally used with reference to liquids. Liquids are usually atomised by forcing them through a nozzle-like device with a very small opening.


To reduce a liquid to fine droplets by passing it under pressure through a suitable nozzle, or by applying drops to a spinning disc.


A device for breaking up liquid into fine droplets in a stream of air.

atropine (or atropine sulfate)

A crystalline alkaloid obtained from solanaceous plants, which is used as an antidote by doctors to treat people or animals poisoned by organophosphate and carbamate pesticides.


The lessening of the virulence or capacity of a parasitic organism or virus to cause disease.


Substances or devices capable of attracting insects, rodents or other pests to a location where they can be trapped or killed for monitoring or control.


in relation to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)

The systematic and objective inspection of the processes, equipment and facilities at premises that are used to manufacture veterinary chemical products to ensure their compliance with APVMA's GMP requirements. GMP audits are conducted by a qualified person (auditor) inspecting the facilities, equipment, personnel and quality management system of premises used by a manufacturer to manufacture or carry out any step in the manufacture of veterinary chemical products.

in relation to good clinical practice:

The systematic and independent examination of study-related activities and documentation to determine whether the study being evaluated is or was properly conducted and whether the data are or were recorded, analysed and accurately reported according to the study protocol, study-related standard operating procedures, and the good clinical practice and other applicable regulatory requirements or guidelines.


From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Includes any external Territories that are participating Territories.

Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC)

A council that operated between 1991 and 2001 that provided a forum for consultation and coordination between state, territory and Commonwealth governments of Australia and the government of New Zealand on environmental and conservation issues.

Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG)
Australian GMP Code

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

Means the Australian Code of Good Manufacturing Practice for Veterinary Chemical Products, published by the APVMA.

Australian GMP Code
Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA)

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority continued in existence by section 6 of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (Administration) Act 1992 .

Although this not stated in the definition under the Code extracted above, the APVMA is an independent statutory authority established in 1993 to regulate agricultural and veterinary chemicals in Australia.

Australian product

From s. 3 of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemical Products (Collection of Levy) Act 1994.

Means a chemical product that has been manufactured in Australia, but does not include an imported product.

authenticated copy

In relation to good clinical practice, a copy that is a complete reflection of an original document, signed and dated by the individual(s) making the copy, certifying that such a copy is complete and accurate.

authorised agent

for an application

A person appointed by an applicant or holder to act on their behalf for the purposes of making an application under the Agvet Code pursuant to the principles of agency law; for example, a registration consultant.

An ‘authorised agent’ is different from a ‘nominated agent’ (see Division 4 of Part 1 of the Agvet Code and, in particular, section 8R); although an authorised agent may become a nominated agent.

If the holder is not a resident of, and does not carry on a business in, Australia, it is a condition of the approval or registration that there is a nominated agent for the approval or registration.

authorised person

In terms of manufacturing, the person recognised by the manufacturer as having the necessary basic scientific knowledge and technical experience to carry out specified tasks associated with quality control.

authorising party

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

For information, means a person who would be entitled to bring an action for breach of an obligation of confidence if the information were disclosed by someone else to the APVMA for the purposes of [the Agvet] Code without the person's permission.

In relation to data protection, an authorised person is the person who would be entitled to bring an action for breach of an obligation of confidence if the information were disclosed by someone else to the APVMA for the purposes of the Agvet Code without the person's permission. See section 34J(2A) of the Agvet Code .

autogeneous vaccine

Any vaccine made from the actual organisms that are causing disease in an individual (or herd). These are cultured, killed and then reinoculated into that same individual (or herd).

autogenous immunobiological

An immunobiological product prepared from a microorganism or microorganisms isolated from sick or dead animals in a herd or flock of origin, which is believed to be the causative agent(s) of the disease affecting the animals.

autotrophic organism

An organism capable of synthesising organic matter from inorganic nutrients.


A generic name for compounds characterised by their capacity to induce elongation in the cells of shoots.


A pesticide used against birds to kill or cause other adverse effects when administered in small doses. Compare with 'bird repellent'.

awareness zone

A zone that includes all sensitive areas around a field to be sprayed that need to be accounted for in a risk assessment (spray plan), with due regard to prevailing winds and forecast weather conditions. A sketch map should highlight these areas, in addition to nearby power lines, roads, and the distance to the nearest residential area or town.

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