Definition of terms

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C

Name Description Related terms
CA
calibrate

To check, adjust or determine by comparison with a standard.

calibrated applicator

An accurately measured and checked application device for which the amount of pesticide being applied by each nozzle or opening of a sprayer, duster, or granular applicator to a given area, plant, or animal in a given amount of time is known.

callus

Tissue overgrowth around a wound or canker of a plant that develops from cambium or other exposed meristem.

calyx

The outer group of floral leaves of a plant, often smaller and green in colour as contrasted to the corolla, the inner and showier part.

calyx stage

The development of the calyx, following transformation from stem or leaf tissue and subsequent to the formation of the corolla (flower petals). The calyx enlarges and increases in length during the transition from blossom formation to the development of the fruiting body.

cambium

A thin layer or cylinder of living cells (meristematic tissue) that divide to form new tissues of the plant. Normally extends over the plant body, except at the growing tips. If the cambium layer is destroyed, as sometimes occurs in banding trees, the plant dies.

cancer

A cellular tumour, the natural course of which is fatal and usually associated with formation of secondary tumours (carcinoma, sarcoma).

canine

Of, or pertaining to, dogs.

canister

A metal or plastic container filled with absorbent materials that filter fumes and vapours from the air before they are breathed in by an applicator.

canker

A plant disease in which there is a sharply limited necrosis of the cortical tissue and malformation of the bark. A definite, dead, often sunken or cracked, area on a stem, twig, limb or trunk surrounded by living tissues. Cankers may girdle affected parts resulting in dieback starting from the tip.

canopy

Aerial parts of the pasture, especially the leaves.

capacity

for ectoparasiticide dips

caprine

Of, or pertaining to, goats.

capsule suspension (aqueous)

A stable suspension of capsules of pesticide in a fluid (normally intended for dilution with water before use).

The APVMA type code used for an aqueous capsule suspension is CS.

carbamate

A group of insecticides derived from carbamic acid that interfere with the insect nervous system via the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase Examples include aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methomyl.

carcase trim
carcinogen

A substance or agent that initiates and/or promotes cancer

carcinogenic

The cancer-causing property of a substance.

carcinogenisis

The process by which cancer is induced.

carrier

A liquid, solid or gas used to facilitate the application of a pesticide to a plant. An adjuvant that is added to (or which dilutes) the active constituent so that the formulation becomes easier to apply. Examples include petroleum solvents and talc.

A plant or animal bearing internally an infectious agent or disease, although it shows no marker symptoms of it. A carrier plant or animal can be a source of infection to other plants or animals.

cartridge

The part of a respirator that absorbs fumes and vapours from the air before the wearer breathes them in.

CAS
CAS Registry

A database of the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) in which numbers are randomly assigned to compounds and are unique for each compound.

CAS Registry Number

A unique number randomly assigned to a compound in the database of the Chemical Abstracts Service Database.

catabolite

The product of reaction when a chemical undergoes change induced by physical or chemical, rather than biochemical, forces.

catch crop

A crop planted for the purpose of catching and removing nematodes from the soil.

categories of licence
category 1 licence

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

Means a licence issued under Part 8 of the [Agvet] Code to carry out steps in the manufacture of a veterinary chemical product that is:

  1. registered as being, represented to be, or required to be sterile, or
  2. an immunobiological product

whether or not the licence also authorises the carrying out of steps in the manufacture of other chemical products.

category 2 licence

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

Means a licence issued under Part 8 of the [Agvet] Code to carry out steps in the manufacture of a veterinary chemical product, other than a veterinary chemical product mentioned in the definition of:

  1. category 1 licence, or
  2. category 3 licence, or
  3. category 4 licence, or
  4. category 6 licence.
category 3 licence

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

Means a licence issued under Part 8 of the [Agvet] Code to carry out steps in the manufacture of a veterinary chemical product that is an externally applied ectoparasiticide.

category 4 licence

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

Means a licence issued under Part 8 of the [Agvet] Code to carry out steps in the manufacture of a veterinary chemical product that is a premix or stockfood supplement.

category 6 licence

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

Means a licence issued under Part 8 of the [Agvet] Code to carry out only one or more of the following steps in the manufacture of a veterinary chemical product:

  • processing
  • assembling
  • packaging
  • labelling
  • storage
  • sterilising
  • testing
  • releasing for supply.
cationic

In which the hydrophobic portion of the molecule carries a residual positive charge.

cationic surfactant

Material in which surface activity is determined by the basic part of a compound.

catkin

A type of flower cluster, usually only bearing female (pistillate) flowers or only male (staminate) structures.

causal organism

The organism that produces a specific disease.

CAUTION

A signal word used to indicate a Schedule 5 poison.

caution statement

Label wording that comprises concise general precautions to be observed.

cell

The structural, functional and biological unit of life.

cell lines

Cultures of cells that have a high capacity for multiplication in vitro. In diploid cell-lines, the cells have essentially the same characteristics as those of the tissue of origin. In continuous cell-lines, the cells are able to multiply indefinitely in culture and may be obtained from healthy or tumoural tissue. Some continuous cell-lines have oncogenic potential under certain conditions.

Cell seed (primary cell seed) (equivalent to Master cell bank)

A culture of fully characterized cells distributed into containers in a single operation, processed together in such a manner as to ensure uniformity and stored in such a manner as to ensure stability. A primary cell seed lot is usually stored at -70°C or lower.

Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)

A body within the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) that regulates the manufacture and distribution of food additives and drugs that are used on animals, including food-producing animals and companion animals. The CVM is responsible for ensuring that animal drugs and medicated feeds are safe and effective for their intended uses and that food from treated animals is safe for human consumption.

centrifugal pump

A pump in which liquid is thrown into a delivery volute by the centrifugal force from vanes of a rapidly rotating impeller.

certification

Of seeds, transplants, cuttings, or other plant parts—seeds or plants produced and sold under inspection control to maintain varietal purity and freedom from harmful diseases, insects and mite pests.

certified reference material (CRM)

Reference material of a known purity and concentration that is characterised by a metrologically valid procedure for one or more specified properties, and is accompanied by a certificate that provides the value of the specified property, its associated uncertainty, and a statement of metrological traceability.

cervine

Of, or pertaining to deer.

challenge diet

A food or liquid offered to compare acceptance with a bait containing a test-active constituent. This diet must be the same as the carrier for the test-active constituent.

chelate

To combine with a metal ion and hold it in solution, preventing it from forming an insoluble salt.

chelates

Metal containing organic compounds useful in supplying deficient minerals to plants.

chemical development studies

Studies conducted to scale-up, optimise and validate the manufacturing process for a new agvet chemical product.

chemical name

The scientific name (according to the conventions of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry—IUPAC) of the active constituent in an agricultural or veterinary chemical product.

chemical product

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means an agricultural chemical product or a veterinary chemical product, or both.

For the purposes of these regulatory guidelines, the term 'chemical product' means an agricultural chemical product or a veterinary chemical product, or both.

From s. 3 of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemical Products (Collection of Levy) Act 1994.

[For the purposes of levy collection] means an agricultural chemical product or a veterinary chemical product but does not include such a product that, under the regulations, is exempt from levy.

chemical product number

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

For a chemical product for which registration is sought in an application mentioned in section 11(2) of the [Agvet] Code, means the number that the APVMA gives to the chemical product after the application is lodged.

chemical production
chemically compatible

A mixture of formulations or chemicals that does not result in any mixture, or physical or chemical interactions that would lead to a reduction in efficacy or an increase in phytotoxicity of a pesticide.

chemosterilant

A chemical that can prevent reproduction (causes sterility) in insects.

chemotherapy

Treatment of diseases by chemicals (chemotherapeutants) working internally. The chemical agent has a toxic effect directly or indirectly on the pathogen without injury to the host.

Chief Executive Officer

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

In relation to the APVMA, includes a person acting as the Chief Executive Officer of the APVMA.

chiral

Not superimposable with its mirror image, as applied to molecules, conformations and macroscopic objects, such as crystals.

chlorates

Usually sodium chlorate. A class of substances used as herbicides and defoliants. The chemicals act as contact poisons, are translocated and may be absorbed from the soil to kill both plant roots and tops. Chlorates cause chlorosis of leaves and starch depletion in stems and roots when applied in less than lethal doses.

chlorinated hydrocarbons

A group of synthetic organic insecticides characterised by the presence of chlorine atoms as the halogen constituent in combination with carbon and hydrogen.

chlorinated pesticides

A synthetic organic pesticide that contains chlorine, carbon and hydrogen; eg DDT, endrin and lindane.

chlorination

The practice of adding small amounts of chlorine to drinking water to ensure microbiological safety.

chlorophyll

The colouring matter in plants that gives plants their green appearance.

chlorosis

An abnormal condition in plants, characterised by the loss of green colour.

The yellowing of a plant's normally green tissue because of a partial failure of the chlorophyll to develop. Plants showing chlorosis are described as being chlorotic.

cholinesterase

A family of enzymes that catalyse the formation of choline from acetylcholine, which is important for nerve conductance.

cholinesterase inhibitor

Any carbamate, organophosphate or other pesticide that can interrupt the action of cholinesterase enzymes.

chronic

Of long duration.

Not acute, of long duration, eg chronic disease or infection.

chronic ecotoxicity

The adverse effects of a substance that are experienced by an organism over a relatively long period (generally more than 90 per cent of the expected life span of the organism). Chronic ecotoxicity testing usually has sublethal effects as its end-points.

chronic poisoning

Poisoning that occurs as a result of repeated exposures (or doses) of poisons over a lengthy period of time.

chronic symptoms

Symptoms that appear over a long period of time.

chronic toxicity

Deleterious effects from long-term exposure to a chemical.

chronic toxicity testing

Experimental studies designed to analyse the chronic toxicity of a substance.

CIPAC methods

Analytical and physical test methods published in Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC) handbooks or agreed by CIPAC as full methods prior to publication.

civil penalty order

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Has the meaning given by section 145A [of the Agvet Code ].

civil penalty provision

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means a provision declared by [the Agvet] Code to be a civil penalty provision.

This definition forms part of a scheme which allows a court to impose, on an application from the APVMA, a pecuniary penalty for contravention of civil penalty provisions (see Part 9A, Div 2 of the Code).

civil proceedings

Court action instigated by an individual or plaintiff to resolve a dispute.

claim

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Includes any statement.

A claim includes any statement on a label, advertising material or in any other place that a product is able to treat, control, eliminate, destroy, modify, repel, etc. a pest or disease of the treated organism or thing or modify the organism in some way. The claim statement may include an expected level of efficacy for the product when used according to label instructions.

clastogen

An agent that produces structural changes of chromosomes.

clastogenicity

The ability to cause structural changes of chromosomes (chromosomal aberrations).

clay

Mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 mm in diameter. Clay has been used as a carrier in pelleted and granulated controlled-release formulation, eg used as aquatic herbicide.

clean area

A suite of rooms (cleanrooms) with defined environmental control of particulate and microbial contamination, used in such a way as to minimise the introduction, generation or retention of contaminants within it.

clearance

in pharmacokinetics

A measure of the removal of a drug or chemical from the body.

climatic zones

The four zones into which the world is divided based on the prevailing annual climatic conditions:

  • Zone I: temperate
  • Zone II: subtropical, with possible high humidity
  • Zone III: hot and dry
  • Zone IV: hot and humid.
clinical study

A single scientific experiment conducted in a target species to test at least one hypothesis relevant to the proposed efficacy claim(s) or relevant to the safety of use of the product under investigation.

clones

An organism or group of organisms derived from a single parent organism.

closely similar
co-resistance

The presence of several resistance mechanisms in the same organism.

co-selection

The selection of multiple antibiotic resistance genes when one gene is selected. This usually occurs because the multiple resistance genes are all part of the same operon and therefore under the control of the same promoter.

co-solvent

A material—usually a liquid—that improves the solvent properties of another liquid. A co-solvent usually has a very high solvency for a pesticide that is used in combination with a cheaper solvent with lower solvency. The resultant effect is to increase the solvency of the lower priced solvent and enable the formulation to contain a higher concentration of the active constituent.

coalesce

The growing or fusing together into one body or spot, sometimes to form a blight or blotch.

coarse powder

A powder of particle sizes between 75 µm and 250 µm in diameter.

coarse spray

The dispersion of drops of mass median diameter over 200 micrometres (µm), and a volume median diameter over 500 µm.

coccidiostat

A substance used in the preventative or curative treatment of diseases caused by organisms of the order Coccidia. Coccidiostats belong to two main chemical classes. One group consists of ionophores, which are a class of antibiotic. Examples of ionophore coccidiostats include lasalocid, maduramicin, monensin, narasin, salinomycin and semduramicin. A second group are the non-antibiotic coccidiostats; examples include decoquinate, diclazuril, nicarbazin and robenedine hydrochloride.

Coccidiostats
Code of GMP
Codex
Codex Alimentarius Commission

The Codex Alimentarius Commission was created in 1963 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) to develop food standards such as maximum residue limit, guidelines and related texts such as codes of practice under the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program.

The main purposes of the commission are protecting the health of consumers, ensuring fair international trade practices in the food trade, and promoting coordination of all food standards work undertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organisations.

Various committees are established by the commission to provide advice and create standards and guidelines.

Codex classification of foods and animal feeds

A publication of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues that aims to ensure the uniform nomenclature and classification of foods and animal feeds. The maximum residue limits established by the APVMA are aligned with commodity definitions and descriptions as presented in this document.

Codex MRL

Internationally published standard maximum residue limit.

The maximum concentration of a pesticide residue that is recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

The concentration is expressed in milligram of pesticide residue per kilogram of the commodity. A Codex MRL refers to the residue resulting from the use of a pesticide according to good agricultural practice directly or indirectly for the production and/or protection of the commodity as determined by supervised trials carried out under varying conditions of climate and pest control needs. Residues at levels that comply with their respective maximum residue limits are not considered to be a health risk. Codex MRLs are primarily intended to apply in international trade and are derived from reviews conducted by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR).

coefficient of variation (CV, cv or CV%)

A normalised measure of dispersion of a probability or frequency distribution. The ratio of the standard deviation of a distribution to the mean of the same distribution. The absolute value of the coefficient of variation is also known as the relative standard deviation (and is expressed as a percentage).

coercive powers

Powers that compel persons to take specified action, such as to provide information, appear to answer questions, and create offences for noncompliance with the specified action.

coil
cold stability
cold-fogging concentrate

A formulation suitable for application by cold-fogging equipment.

cole crop
collecting agency

From subsection 3(1) of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemical Products (Collection of Levy) Act 1994 and r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

Means:

  1. if an Agency is specified by instrument under section 3A [of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemical Products (Collection of Levy) Act 1994 ] to be the collecting agency—the Agency, or
  2. if paragraph (a) does not apply—the APVMA.
colloidal formulation

Pesticide in which the particle size is less than 6 µm in diameter, and that stay indefinitely dispersed

colloidal powder

An extremely fine powder of an active constituent, forming a colloidal suspension when mixed with water.

colloidal suspension

A dispersion of extremely fine particles in a non-solvent fluid. A term applied to chemicals dissolved in a suitable solvent then added to water throughout which the chemical is dispersed. This produces a condition of extreme subdivision (0.1 micrometre or less particle size) of the chemical that remains suspended in the water. Colloidal suspensions do not diffuse readily through vegetable or animal membranes.

colloids

Solids whose particles size is so small that gravity has little effect in causing suspensions of these solids to settle out on prolonged standing.

colony

A mass of individuals, generally of one species, living together, eg bees, ants.

commencement

of amending legislation

The date on which changes to an amended Act come into force.

commensal

Of, or relating to, a symbiotic relationship in which one species derives a benefit and the other species is unaffected by the other.

commercial and industrial areas

Includes factories, factory land, industrial sites, parking lots, fuel tank farms, outside chemical storage areas, wharves and ships.

Commercial formulation
commercial-scale trial

Commercial-scale (demonstration) trials are trials that use commercially available equipment and are usually unreplicated due to their typically large scale.

commercial-use product

Products that are used in a commercial enterprise (eg farm, professional pest control service or wood treatment plant) where there is an economic risk from product failure.

Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use (CVMP)

This committee is responsible for preparing the European Medicines Agency's opinion on questions concerning veterinary medicinal products, including the assessment of the quality, safety and efficacy requirements in accordance with European Union legislation.

common exposure route

A likely way (oral, dermal, respiratory) that a pesticide may reach or enter an organism.

Community Consultative Committee (CCC)

A committee that provides for two-way communication between the APVMA and community members with an interest in, or concern about, agvet chemicals. The committee informs the community of matters relating to agvet chemicals and reports to the APVMA on the effects on the community of the use or misuse of agvet chemicals.

companion animal

a non-food species.

For the purposes of efficacy modules a companion animal means a dog, cat or horse.

compatibility

The capacity of two substances to be mixed together (in a formulation or a spray tank) without producing any effect on either reducing the efficacy or increasing the toxicity to plants or animals of the individual substances.

compatibility agents

Material that reduces the likelihood of antagonism from other agents in the spray solution, eg ammonia sulfate. Compatibility agents are also used to neutralise the effect of hard water on amine formulations such as glyphosate.

compliance

The full implementation and observance of legal requirements.

Compliance plan
a series of actions and a timeframe that a person may propose to achieve compliance with Agvet legislation (i.e. could be a component of an Enforceable Undertaking).
compliance plan

A plan for staged improvement in conduct to achieve compliance with legislation.

compressed air sprayer

A portable sprayer activated by compressed air produced by a built-in pump. The capacity is usually 4—12 L.

compulsory recall

A recall of agvet chemical product(s) that is initiated and managed by the registration holder. If the APVMA is not satisfied that a voluntary recall is effective, it may issue a Compulsory Recall Notice to implement a compulsory recall.

concentrate

An agvet chemical formulation (solid or liquid) as it is supplied before diluting. A concentrate usually contains a high percentage of the active constituent to save shipping and storage costs and yet is of convenient strength and composition for dilution.

Opposite of 'dilute'.

concentrate spraying

The application of an undiluted agvet chemical product through spraying.

The application of a volume of spray mixture less than that required for dilute spraying (ie spraying to point of run-off), and at the same time applying the same amount of chemical product that would have been applied if dilute spraying had been used. For this to be achieved, the concentration of product in the spray mixture must be increased as the volume of water is decreased.

concentration

The amount of a compound in a given volume or weight, eg 400 grams per litre (g/L) or 20 grams per kilogram (g/kg).

condemnation

The action of authorities in preventing a crop, commodity or food that does not meet the legal standard for residues from being offered for sale.

cone nozzle

Nozzle in which liquid emerges from an orifice with a tangential velocity component, imparted by passage through one or more tangential or helical channels in a swirl chamber.

confidence interval and confidence limits

A confidence interval is an estimate of a statistical range with a specified probability that a given parameter lies within that range

confidence level

The level of certainty to which an estimate can be trusted.

confidential commercial information (CCI)

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

In relation to an active constituent for a proposed or existing chemical product, or in relation to a chemical product or a constituent of a chemical product, means:

  1. a trade secret relating to the constituent or product, or
  2. any other information relating to the constituent or product that has a commercial value that would be, or could reasonably be expected to be, destroyed or diminished if the information were disclosed, or
  3. information (other than trade secrets to which paragraph (a) applies or information to which paragraph (b) applies) that:
    1. concerns the lawful commercial or financial affairs of a person, organisation or undertaking, and
    2. relates to the manufacture, distribution or supply of the constituent or product, and
    3. if it were disclosed, could unreasonably affect the person, organisation or undertaking in an adverse manner,

      but does not include:
       
  4. the making of an application for a permit for the use of an active constituent for a proposed or existing chemical product or for the use of a chemical product, if the use of the product proposed in the application is:
    1. a minor use, or
    2. an emergency use, or
    3. any prescribed information relating to the making of an application for a permit, as mentioned in paragraph (d).

The definition extracted above, generally speaking, covers information that relates to active constituents, agvet chemical products and constituents within agvet chemical products and that:

  • is a trade secret
  • has commercial value that would be, could be or would be expected to be destroyed or diminished if the information were disclosed, or
  • concerns the lawful commercial or financial affairs of a person, organisation or undertaking and relates to the manufacture, distribution or supply of the constituent or the product and if it were disclosed could reasonably affect the person, organisation or undertaking in an adverse manner.
confounding factor

A factor that distorts the apparent effect or magnitude of the effect of a study factor or risk. Such factors must be controlled in order to obtain an undistorted estimate of a given effect.

conjugate

Two compounds joined together.

conjugated product

A product made up of an active constituent (eg peptide, carbohydrate) bound covalently or noncovalently to a carrier (eg protein, peptide, inorganic mineral) with the objective of improving the efficacy or stability of the product.

conjugation

A type of horizontal gene transfer between bacterial cells. In conjugation, genetic material is transferred through direct contact or connection between individual bacterial cells.

conservation tillage

A general term to describe any system of farming that preserves crop residues and reduces water run-off and erosion. Includes tillage systems that create a satisfactory environment for growing a crop that conserves the soil and water resources consistent with sound economic practices.

constituent

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

In relation to a chemical product, means any constituent of the product, whether an active constituent or not.

contact herbicide

A herbicide that is phytotoxic by contact with plant tissue only, rather than as a result of translocation. Only the part of the plant that makes contact with the herbicide is directly affected.

contact insecticide

An insecticide that kills when it comes into direct contact with the insect or vice versa.

contact poison

Poisons that are absorbed through the outer surfaces (eg insect cuticle, plant leaf surface, human skin).

contained area

An area constructed and operated in such a manner (and equipped with appropriate air handling and filtration) so as to prevent contamination of the external environment by biological agents within the area.

container

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Includes anything by which or in which a chemical product is, or is to be, covered, enclosed, contained or packaged, but does not include a container (such as a shipping container) in which other containers of chemical products are, or are to be, placed for the purpose of being transported.

container closure system

The sum of packaging components that together contain and protect the product.

containment

The action of confining a substance within a defined space (eg carrying out dusty operations in an enclosed room or containing spills within the confines of a bunded floor) or of keeping pests, airborne materials and other contaminants out of a building by effective sealing of entry points.

contaminant

Any substance not intentionally added to food that is present in such food as a result of the production (including operations carried out in crop husbandry, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine), manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging or transport to holding of such food, or as a result of environmental contamination. The term does not include insect fragments, rodent hair or other extraneous materials.

contamination
continuous replenishment

for ectoparasiticide dips

When dip wash at the defined concentration is allowed to run continuously from a side tank into a sump during dipping, both to maintain the volume of the wash and also to maintain the concentration of pesticide at a constant level.

continuous variable

A variable that may take on any value between an upper and lower limit.

continuous variables
contraindication

A condition or specific situation that renders a particular type of treatment undesirable or unacceptable.

control

To prevent or retard the development of an unwanted situation, such as insect pests, plant disease, parasite infestation, fungal infection, etc.

control of use legislation

State legislation that makes it an offence to possess and use an unregistered chemical product or to use a registered chemical product for an unapproved purpose. Each Australian state has its own control of use legislation. The relevant legislation in each state may, however, differ in the types of use pattern that are permissible with a registered agvet product, or in the actions that are deemed to be offences. Specific off-label uses that comply with the restrictions enforced on the product label (eg application rate and withholding period) may not require the issue of an APVMA off-label permit in all states.

Control sample
controlled droplet applicator (CDA)

A device containing a spinning disc that produces a narrow spectrum of small drops by centrifugal force.

conventional cultivation

The normally accepted tillage sequence for ground preparation in a district. It usually involves the removal of all, or most, of the plant material from an area by successive mechanical operations prior to planting a crop.

coordinator

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

In relation to a jurisdiction, means a person designated:

  1. if the jurisdiction is a state—by a Minister of the state, or
  2. if the jurisdiction is the participating territories:
    1. if the Australian Capital Territory is the only participating territory—by a Minister of the Australian Capital Territory, or
    2. if there is more than one participating territory—jointly by a Minister of the Commonwealth and a Minister of the Australian Capital Territory to perform the functions of a coordinator under [the Agvet] Code.
coppice

A stand or thicket of small trees or shrubs that are cultivated or managed by regular cutting or pruning to encourage growth by suckering or putting out new shoots.

copy

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

In relation to a warrant issued under section 143 or 143A (or a form of warrant completed under subsection 143B(6)), includes:

  1. a copy sent by fax or other electronic means, or
  2. a copy of a copy so sent.
corpora allata

A pair of small, compact glandular organs behind the brain in insects that secrete juvenile hormone, which prevents the conversion from a larva into a pupa and stimulate growth and development of larval organs. In adult insects, the same gland stimulates maturation of the sex cells.

The singular version is corpus allatum.

corresponding previous law

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means a previous law of this jurisdiction that corresponds wholly or partly to [the Agvet] Code , to the extent that it so corresponds.

corrosion

The process of wearing away by chemical action.

corrosive poison

A type of poison that contains a strong acid or base that will severely burn the skin, mouth, stomach, etc.

cotyledons

The fleshy leaf-like structures found in the seeds of plants. When seeds germinate, the cotyledons come out of the seed case and appear above ground.

cover crop

Plants grown to improve and maintain soil structure, add organic matter and prevent soil erosion.

coverage

Distribution of a pesticide over a discontinuous area, such as leaves of a tree.

The degree of uniformity of pesticide application over a surface.

covered smut
cpm
creamed emulsion
criteria

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Includes standards.

critical comments

Information that is included in the 'directions for use' table that, when read in conjunction with the restraints and general use information, allows sufficient information for safe and accurate usage.

critical concentration

The maximum concentration of a chemical (agent) in water or soil that has no adverse effect on a test organism.

critical effect

The most relevant, sensitive adverse effect judged to be the most appropriate for setting an acceptable human intake.

critical test

In parasitological studies, a procedure whereby the number of parasites recovered from an animal after the treatment is added to the number counted in the animal at necropsy, giving a total number of parasites considered to be in the animal at the time of treatment. The percentage effectiveness in an individual animal is calculated as:

    Pe            x 100
_______
Pe + Pr

where

Pe = number of expelled parasites; Pr = the number of remaining parasites.

critical use pattern

The maximum dose rate to which animals may be exposed (as specified on the product label). Typically, the instructions for veterinary chemical products express dose rates in terms of a range of body weights: the animals at the lower end of the body-weight range receive medication at a rate that exceeds the nominal dose rate. The highest rate, in terms of milligrams of veterinary chemical per kilogram body weight is considered to be the critical dose rate.

CRM
crop

A plant growing where it is desired and the fruits or products of such plants.

crop land or cropping land

Any land that may in the immediate or foreseeable future be used to produce agricultural or horticultural crops, or on which stock may be placed, and where the treatment of such land will place chemical materials in the human or animal food chain.

crop management

A term that includes management options, such as the crops within a crop rotation, length and type of fallowing, time of sowing, stubble retention and tillage operations.

crop oils

Adjuvants that act as penetrants and usually contain emulsifiers and sometimes surfactants to allow them to mix with water. Some claims regarding oil adjuvants include that they reduce rainfast periods, make droplet size more uniform (drift reduction), reduce spray evaporation and improve penetration of herbicide into waxy leaves.

Crop oils can be divided into three main groups: mineral oils, vegetable oils and esterified vegetable oils.

crop safety

The safety of an agricultural chemical product for target plants, when applied at the rate indicated on the label.

crop tolerance

The ability of a crop to be treated with a pesticide but not be injured.

The degree of pesticide treatment a crop can withstand without injury.

cross-resistance

Resistance to more than one antibiotic or antibiotic class determined by a single mechanism of resistance.

cross-resistant

When a pest population that has become resistant to one pesticide also becomes resistant to other, often unrelated, pesticides.

When a bacterium becomes resistant to more than one antibiotic or antibiotic class due to a single mechanism of resistance. Acquisition of a single resistance mechanism confers resistance to a whole class of antibiotics.

crucifer

A group of plants belonging to the mustard family, which includes kale, chou moellier, rape (canola), swede, turnip, mustard, cabbage, cauliflower and brussels sprouts.

crude plant (vegetable drug)

Fresh or dried medicinal plants or parts thereof.

crystalline

Substances that, in solid state, have a definite geometrical form.

CSIRO

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears): Means: The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation established by the Science and Industry Research Act 1949.

cucurbits

Plants belonging to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae (eg cucumber, pumpkin, melons, zucchinis, marrows and squash).

culpable harm

When it is reasonable to hold a person or a company legally responsible for loss and/or damage resulting from their action or failure to act.

cultivar

A variety of cultivated plant.

cultural control

The use of soil tillage, plant residue processing and other mechanical activity to combat insects, weeds and other pests.

culture

A growth of an organism for the purpose of experiment, especially on laboratory media (culture media).

curative spray

Fungicide effective shortly after infection has occurred.

current Poisons Standard

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

Has the meaning given by subsection 52A(1) of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989.

cut-bark treatment

A type of treatment that involves applying herbicides to cuts made through the bark to the depth of the vascular tissue. Includes frilling, girdling, notching and injection.

cut-stump treatment

A treatment applied to the freshly cut surface of a stump, with the object of preventing regrowth.

cuticle

A superficial, often more or less waterproof, non-cellular layer that covers all aerial parts of higher plants.

The waxy layer on the surfaces of leaves and stems of plants. The cuticle protects against mechanical injury, but mainly against excessive water loss.

The thin, fairly waterproof layer over the whole surface of an insect that protects against excessive water loss.

cyclodiene

A class of organic insecticides possessing a chlorinated methylene group (eg aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor).

CYP
cytogenetics

The chromosomal analysis of cells.