Definition of terms

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L

Name Description Related terms
label

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Includes tag, leaflet, brand, stamp, mark, stencil or written statement.

label advisory statement

The statement used to clarify the circumstances under which product use may be ineffective or hazardous due to extraneous factors not otherwise specified (described) on the label. General advisory statements also endeavour to provide important information related to controlled use.

label parts
labelling

The technical information about an agvet chemical product in the form of printed material provided by the manufacturer or its agent, including the label, flyers, handouts, leaflets and brochures.

labelling code

Means the Agricultural Labelling Code and the Veterinary Labelling Code, published by the APVMA. These codes set out details of the information and instructions required by the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Code Act 1994 (Agvet Code) and Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Code Regulations 1995 (Agvet Code Regulations) to be included on labels, and provides guidance on how these requirements may be met. They also include requirements for layout and presentation of information on labels and on printing and legibility of labels.

Regulation 18E of the Agvet Code Regulations imposes a condition of label approval that labels for registered chemical products must comply with a labelling standard made under regulation 18A, or if no standard has been made, with either the Agricultural Labelling Code (for agricultural chemical products) or the Veterinary Labelling Code (for veterinary chemical products). As no labelling standard has been made, labels must comply with the requirements set out in the relevant labelling code.

Labelling codes
labelling criteria

A label for a chemical container meets the labelling criteria if the label contains adequate instructions relating to certain prescribed matters (for a full definition of the labelling criteria, see section 5D of the Agvet Code).

The labelling criteria will be considered when the APVMA makes decisions about:

  • an application for approval of a label for containers for a chemical product—s. 14(1)(d)
  • varying relevant particulars and conditions for an approval—s 29(1)(d)
  • affirming a label approval at the conclusion of a reconsideration—s. 34(1)(c)
  • preparing a standard for a listed chemical product—s. 8V(b)
  • suspending or cancelling the approval for a label.
labelling standard

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

A standard made by the APVMA under paragraph 6E(1)(c) of the code.

laboratory animals
laboratory sample

The sample intended for the laboratory to analyse.

A representative portion of the final sample.

laboratory strain

A subpopulation of a pest or parasite isolated from the field at least 10 years ago that can be characterised and segregated in the laboratory. Segregation is based on a particular property, making it unique for areas of research, such as resistance to certain compounds (eg a parasite that is resistant to an antiparasitic compound or a microorganism that is resistant to an antibiotic).

laboratory-scale batch
lactation

The period during which an animal produces and secretes milk.

Lagomorpha

Relatively small mammals, superficially rodents, but not related to them—rabbits and hares are representatives.

larva

A young, growing insect in the stage after hatching from the egg and before becoming a pupa. In this early form, the immature insect is worm-like or grub-like and usually does not look like the adult form. The larval form of many insects (eg caterpillars) is largely responsible for pest effects of insects.

Also, the sexually immature form of certain parasites, such as nematodes.

Plural is 'larvae'.

larvicide

A substance or mixture of substances intended to prevent, destroy, repel or control the larvae of insects.

late post-emergence

Applied after the specified crop or weeds are well established.

latent period

The interval between the act of infection and the manifestation of the disease. Also, the elapsed time between a stimulus and its response.

Latin Squares

An array of the same number of rows and columns in which each symbol (or treatment) occurs only once in each row and in each column.

lay-by

The time of the last cultivation of a row crop.

LC

The APVMA formulation type code for liquid concentrate.

LC-MS/MS
LC50 or LC50

The concentration of a substance in air that produces death by inhalation in 50 per cent of a population of experimental organisms within a specified period. It is usually expressed in milligrams per litre (mg/L), milligrams per cubic metre of air (mg/m3) or milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) as a concentration in food, water or air. The lower the LC50, the more toxic the substance.

LD50 or LD50

The dose or amount of an active constituent that, when taken through the mouth or absorbed through the skin, kills 50 per cent of the experimental animals under stated test conditions. It is generally expressed in milligrams per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg bw). The dose is commonly used to measure acute oral toxicity or acute dermal toxicity. The lower an LD50, the higher the toxicity of the chemical.

The term is also used for the number of microorganisms of a particular species that are fatal in 50 per cent of the host organisms.

leach

Move downwards in solution through the soil.

leaching

The movement of a substance downward or out of the soil as a result of water movement. Washout of various substances from soil by infiltrating water.

The removal of a compound from a substrate or mixture by use of a solvent.

LED10

The lowest effective dose. The lower 95 per cent confidence limit on a dose associated with an estimated 10 per cent increased tumour or relevant non-tumour response.

legal practitioner

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

Means a person who is admitted, and entitled to practise, as a barrister or solicitor in a state or territory.

legumes
lesion

A localised spot of diseased tissue—an injury.

lethal

Causing or capable of causing death; deadly; fatal.

level of detection

The minimum concentration or mass of analyte that can be detected at a known confidence level.

leviable disposal

From s. 3 of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemical Products (Collection of Levy) Act 1994:

In relation to a chemical product, means:

  1. if the product is an Australian product:
    1. if the product is disposed of in Australia by the manufacturer—that disposal of the product, or
    2. if the product is applied by the manufacturer to the manufacturer’s own use—that application of the product, or
  2. if the product is an imported product:
    1. if the product is disposed of in Australia by the importer—that disposal of the product, or
    2. if the product is applied by the importer to the importer’s own use—that application of the product.
leviable value

From s. 3 of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemical Products (Collection of Levy) Act 1994: In relation to a leviable disposal of a chemical product, means:

  1. if the leviable disposal was a sale by wholesale of the product by the manufacturer or importer and the parties to the sale were dealing at arm's length—the amount received by the manufacturer or importer in respect of the sale, or
  2. otherwise—the notional wholesale value of the product at the time of the disposal.
levy
liability

Something that someone is legally responsible for.

liable

Legally responsible for.

lice infestation levels for sheep or goats

Infestation levels include:

  • low—less than one louse per 10 cm parting
  • moderate—one to five lice per 10 cm parting
  • heavy—more than five lice per 10 cm parting.
licence

From s. 3 the Agvet Code:

Means a licence under Part 8 [of the Agvet Code ].

lichen

A composite organism consisting of fungus and an alga. Typically found growing on tree trunks, old walls, fence posts, soil, rocks, etc.

lick
life cycle or life history

The procession of stages in the life development of an organism.

lifetime

Covering the average lifespan of an organism (eg 70 years for a human).

ligand

In chemistry, an agent with a strong affinity to a metal ion.

ligule

The pair of pointed projections or 'claspers' that encircle the stem at the base of each leaf of certain grasses where the leaf joins onto the stem.

limit of detection (LOD)

The smallest measured content of an analyte from which is possible to deduce the presence of an analyte with reasonable certainty. One possible way to estimate the LOD involves determining the arithmetic mean of the analyte concentrations using the analytical procedure, as proposed, in a representative number of separately sourced and prepared blank samples (n ? 20), plus three times the standard deviation. Other methods of calculation providing substantially the same certainty may be used.

limit of determination
limit of quantitation (LOQ)

The minimum concentration of analyte in a test sample that can be determined with acceptable precision (repeatability) and accuracy under the stated conditions of the test. The level below which an analytical method is unable to accurately quantify the substance being measured.

limitation period

A period during which the APVMA must not use information to assess or make a decision on an application made under section 10 or section 27 of the Agvet Code if the information has been given to the APVMA in connection with another application made under section 10 or section 27 of the Agvet Code by the applicant for the other application, or if the information has been given to the APVMA under section 161 of the Agvet Code. Details of the lengths of limitation periods are provided in section 34M of the Agvet Code .

Limited claim
linearity

of an analytical procedure

The ability (within a given range) to obtain test results that are directly proportional to the concentration (amount) of analyte in the sample.

liquid

A substance that flows freely but is of constant volume, having a consistency like that of water or oil.

liquid concentrate

A concentrated solution of active constituent in water or water-miscible solvent that should be further diluted with water to the concentration recommended for application.

The APVMA formulation type code for liquid is LD.

liquid vaporiser

A liquid formulation in a cartridge or bottle, designed to fit a suitable heating unit, from which the formulation passes up a heated wick and evaporates into the local atmosphere.

The APVMA formulation type code for a liquid vaporiser is LV.

Listed chemical product

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code , r. 8AR and Schedule 3B of the Agvet Code Regulations:

A chemical product that is, or is included in a class of chemical products that is, listed by regulations under section 8T [of the Agvet Code ]. Listed chemical products and classes of listed chemical products are included in Schedule 3B of the Agvet Code Regulations.

litter

The dead parts of plants deposited on the soil surface or at the bottom of a water body.

local infection

An infection involving only a limited part of a plant.

Lodged

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code and r. 5A of the Agvet Code Regulations:

In relation to an application under [the Agvet] Code , has the meaning prescribed by the [Agvet Code] regulations .

An application is lodged when the applicant gives:

  • the information in the approved form for the application, and
  • any other information specified for the application under s. 8B of the Agvet Code
  • to the APVMA, in the manner (if any) required by r. 65.

If the applicant does not give the information specified under s. 8B to the APVMA within 7 days of giving the information in the approved form, the applicant is taken to have lodged the application 7 days after giving the APVMA the information in the approved form.

lodging

The condition of a plant that has been beaten to the ground or otherwise damaged so that it cannot stand upright, especially cereals damaged by wind and rain.

logarithmic sprayer

A device for spraying a pesticide at a steadily decreasing rate of application.

long wool

Wool of more than six weeks after shearing.

longevity

The capacity of seeds to remain dormant for long periods and then germinate when conditions are favourable.

low volatile

A liquid or solid that does not evaporate quickly in the normal range of temperatures and pressures.

low-pressure boom sprayer

A machine that can deliver low to moderate volumes of pesticide at pressures of 30 to 60 pounds per square inch (psi). It is most often used for field and forage crops, pastures and rights-of-way.

Compare with 'hydraulic sprayer'.

low-volume air sprayer

A machine similar to an air blast sprayer, but with somewhat lower water volume and higher air velocity, that produces extremely fine droplets.

low-volume spray

A spray used to distribute a small volume of pesticide evenly over a given area. It does not thoroughly wet the plants (as with a high-volume spray), but the spray is applied as a carefully controlled pattern of spots and not as a continuous film.

A spray application of less than 170 litres per hectare (L/ha).

lowest-observed-adverse-effect concentration (LOAEC)

The lowest concentration of a gas in a study or group of studies that produces an adverse effect in the exposed animals or humans. Effects may include alteration of morphology, function, capacity, growth, development, or lifespan of a target organism distinguished from normal organisms of the same species under defined conditions of exposure.

lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL)

The lowest dose of a substance in a study or group of studies that produces an adverse effect in the exposed animals or humans. Effects may include alterations of morphology, functional capacity, growth, development or lifespan of the target organisms of the same species under defined conditions of exposure.

lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC)

The lowest concentration of a gas that produces a biological (non-adverse) effect in the exposed animals or humans..

lowest-observed-effect level (LOEL)

The lowest dose of a substance in a study or group of studies that produces a biological (non-adverse) effect in the exposed animals or humans.

luminance contrast

The amount of light reflected from one surface or component, compared to the amount of light reflected from the background or surrounding surfaces. This term is defined in Australian Standard AS 1428.1 Design for access and mobility.

lure

A chemical that attracts a pest to a bait or a lethal deposit of pesticide.