Definition of terms

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P

Name Description Related terms
packaging

The container, together with the protective wrapping used to carry the chemical products via retail distribution to users.

All operations, including filling or labelling, that a bulk product has to undergo in order to become a finished product.

packaging group

The packaging group identification assigned to dangerous goods identifies the degree of hazard they represent during transportation.

packaging materials

Any material employed in the packaging of an agvet chemical product, including labels, but excluding any outer packaging used for transportation or shipment. Packaging materials are referred to as primary or secondary according to whether they are in direct contact with the product:

  • primary packaging material—packaging material that comes into direct contact with the product (eg a bottle or blister pack that contains liquids or tablets).
  • secondary packaging material—packaging material that does not come into contact with the product (eg a printed cardboard carton that encases a sealed and labelled bottle of liquid or tablets).

 

Palatability

A property of any orally administered agricultural or veterinary chemical product (eg worming paste, rodenticide) that is a measure of the acceptability of the product by the target animal, based on its organoleptic properties such as flavour and texture. Palatability is an important property to measure, as products of low palatability will be only partially consumed, if at all.

pannels
PAPS
parameter

A number that describes a population.

parasite

An organism living in or on another organism (the host) and getting its food from its host for all, or part of, its life.

parasitic

Living off, or feeding on or in, another organism.

parenteral

Administration other than topically or through the alimentary canal. Administration by injection, either subcutaneously or intravenously.

parthenogenetic

Asexual.

A pest population that does not require males of the species for reproduction.

participating territory

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code and the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Act 1994 . Means:

  1. the Australian Capital Territory, or
  2. another territory that is declared by regulations in force under section 25 [of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Act 1994 ] to be a participating territory.
particle drift

Occurs when water and other pesticide carriers evaporate quickly from the droplet, leaving tiny particles of concentrated chemical. Instances of this form of drift have damaged susceptible crops up to 30 kilometres from the source.

particle size

With dusts, suspensions and wettable powders, the size of their particles and the distribution of particle size is an important property contributing to properties such as solubility, ease of inhalation by users and efficiency of distribution of the active constituent.

partition coefficient

A ratio of the concentrations of a substance in each phase of a two-phase system. The partition coefficient of a chemical between two largely immiscible solvents is defined as the equilibrium ratio of the molar concentrations of the substance dissolved in the two-phase system.

partner agencies

Government departments and agencies that contribute to the activities of the APVMA through provision of expert advice and evaluation and standard setting services. Partner agencies include the Office of Chemical Safety in the Department of Health, the Chemical Assessment Section in the Department of the Environment, the Office of the Gene Technology Regulator and Food Standards Australia New Zealand.

passage level

Passage is the process of passing or maintaining a group of microorganisms or cells through a series of hosts or cultures. It can be used to create an attenuated strain of a virus to develop vaccines. The process involves infecting a series of host organisms with a virus. Each time the virus is given some time to incubate, and then the next host is infected with the incubated virus.

paste

A suspension, grease or ointment, usually highly viscous, composed of active constituent and non-active constituents, designed for use as-is or after dilution with water or oil.

pasture(s)

Herbage grown specifically for the purpose of being grazed by, or fed to, livestock. The term includes lucerne, medics, clovers, and grasses grown specifically for grazing or as seed crops. Pastures vary greatly in their composition of legume and grass species. They may be either native or improved and generally consist of a mixture of various pasture species. They do not include crops such as cereals, oilseeds, vegetables and cole crops.

pathogen

A disease-producing organism affecting plants or animals, including fungi, bacteria and viruses, but not higher organisms such as nematodes (helminths).

pathogenesis

The part of the life of a disease-producing organism when it is directly associated with the living host.

pathogenic

Producing disease.

peduncle

The stem that bears a flower or flower cluster.

pellet

A solid formulation in which the particles are appreciably larger than in dusts or powders, and which includes granules and prills.

pelleting

The process by which pesticidal pellets are produced.

Penalty Infringement Notice (PIN)

A notice given by an APVMA inspector or other authorised person setting out the particulars of an alleged contravention of an offence or civil penalty provision of the Agvet Code. A PIN may be issued in person or through the post. A PIN provides an alternative to prosecution for an offence or litigation of a civil matter and is generally issued for a minor offence of a regulatory nature. A person receiving a PIN may either pay the fine specified in the notice or elect to have the offence heard in a court.

penalty unit

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Has the same meaning as in section 4AA of the Crimes Act 1914.

penetrant

An adjuvant that helps a liquid pesticide to get into the pores or get through the outer surface of a leaf or root and into the plant. Also known as a penetrating agent.

penetration

The ability to get through; the process of entering.

perennial

A plant that remains alive for two years or more from the time of seeding and usually flowers each year. Perennial plants may be herbaceous or woody.

performance standard

A regulatory or scientific standard for disinfectants that is either quantitative or qualitative (as specified in the test method), and by which a decision is made on the acceptability of the claim.

performance testing

Studies made according to sound scientific principles to determine the efficacy, efficiency, safety and reliability of the proposed use of an agricultural or veterinary chemical product and conditions simulating those likely to be encountered by prospective users following the proposed label instructions.

permeable

Capable of being penetrated by gases or liquids.

permit

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means a permit under Part 7.

A document issued by the APVMA under section 114 of the Agvet Code that allows a person in certain circumstances to possess, supply, use or manufacture a chemical product, which would otherwise be an offence under the Agvet Code, or would involve contravention of a civil penalty provision under that Code. Permits may be issued for activities that would otherwise be an offence against sections 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 79B, 80, 81, 84, 85, 87, 91, or subsection 121(4A) or (5A) of the Agvet Code or a contravention of a civil penalty provision mentioned in sections 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 79A, 79B, 80, 81, 84, 85,86, 87, 91, 91A, or in subsections 121(4) or (5) of the Agvet Code.

permitted daily exposure (PDE)

The maximum acceptable intake per day of residual solvent in pharmaceutical products.

persistence

The ability of a chemical to maintain its molecular integrity, and hence its physical, chemical and functional characteristics, in the environment through which it is transported and distributed following its environmental release.

persistent herbicide

A herbicide that, when applied at the recommended rate, will harm susceptible crops planted in normal rotation after harvesting the treated crop or that interferes with regrowth of vegetation in non-crop sites.

person assisting an inspector

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

  1. in relation to the exercise of monitoring powers—has the meaning given by section 131D [of the Agvet Code ], and
  2. in relation to the exercise of investigation powers—has the meaning given by section 132E [of the Agvet Code ].
person responsible for production

In terms of manufacturing, the person nominated on the manufacturer's licence as being responsible for production.

person responsible for quality

In terms of manufacturing, the person nominated on the manufacturer's licence as being responsible for quality.

personal protective equipment (PPE)

Any clothes, material or devices that offer protection from pesticides, especially when handling or applying highly toxic pesticides. Such equipment can prevent injury or death. Examples of this type of equipment include gloves, apron, shoes, coveralls, hat, cartridge respirator, gas mask.

pest

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means:

  1. in relation to an animal, plant or thing—any animal, plant or other biological entity that injuriously affects the physical condition, worth or utility of the first-mentioned animal or plant or of that thing, or
  2. in relation to a place—an animal, plant or other biological entity that injuriously affects the use or enjoyment of that place.
pest management

The control or management of pests to prevent or reduce injury to humans and their plants, animals or property.

pesticide

Any substance, or mixture of substances, other than a feed additive:

The term excludes fertilisers or other plant nutrients and agents, such as veterinary medicines and feed additives administered to animals for purposes such as stimulating their growth or modifying their reproductive behaviour, and substances added during processing of food.

  • intended for preventing, destroying or controlling any pest, including unwanted species of plants or animals during the production, processing, storage, transport or marketing of food, agricultural commodities or animal feedstuffs
  • administered to animals for the control of insects, arachnids or other pests in or on their bodies
  • intended for use as a plant growth regulator, defoliant, desiccant or plant thinning agent, or agent preventing the premature fall of fruit and substances applied to crops, either before or shortly after harvest, to protect the commodity from deterioration during storage and transport.
pesticide common name

A semi-systematic (trivial) name of a chemical pesticide. Standards Australia publishes the Recommended common names for pesticides AS 1719-1994.

pesticide loss

The removal of a pesticide from the environment by inactivation, migration, leaching, volatilisation, co-evaporation and other processes.

pesticide residue

Any substance that remains in or on food, agricultural commodities, soil, water or animal feedstuff and results from the use of the pesticide. It includes specified derivatives—such as degradation and conversion products, metabolites, reaction products—and impurities that are considered to be of toxicological significance, whether from known or unavoidable sources or from known uses of the pesticide in question.

pesticide tolerance

A term used in the United States and some other countries for the amount of pesticide residue that may legally remain in or on a food crop (not to be confused with biological tolerance). The term used in Australia is 'maximum residue limit'.

pet food

A food or food mixture that contains one or more nutritional ingredients and is intended to be fed to animals for the maintenance of life, normal growth, production, work, reproduction or performance. Pet foods can take a number of forms (eg wet, dry, semi-moist, drinks, snacks, treats).

petiole

The stalk of a leaf.

petroleum oils

Pesticides based on refined mineral oil that are used to control insects and mites, particularly scales, aphids and insect eggs.

petroleum products

Pesticides (or other items) that contain mineral oil, gasoline, kerosene or similar products.

pH

A symbol of the scale used to designate the relative acidity of a solution. The scale ranges from 1 to 14. The midpoint (pH 7.0) represents a neutral solution. Numbers less than 7 indicate increasing acidity; those more than 7 represent increasing alkalinity.

phage
Pharmaceutical
pharmaceutical equivalence

For certain dosage forms (eg intravenous solutions, oral solubilised forms, topical dose forms, nonabsorbed antacids and radiopaque oral tablets), bioequivalence may be demonstrated by provision of in vitro data to demonstrate pharmaceutical equivalence of a product to a reference product. Such data should include:

  • the nature of the dosage form
  • the solubility of the active constituent(s) in water
  • the relevant pharmaceutical characteristics, including particle size, crystal form and dissolution profile, where applicable
  • the rate limiting steps in absorption of the active constituent(s) (eg disintegration, dissolution, gut absorption), where applicable or in access to the site of the effect
  • the relevant scientific argument regarding the clinical consequences of inequivalence.
Pharmacodynamic studies

The study of the interaction of pharmacologically active substances with target sites, and the biochemical and physiological consequences leading to the therapeutic or adverse effects.

Pharmacokinetic studies

The study of the movement of drugs within the body (ie the absorption, distribution via the blood, metabolism and excretion).

pharmacokinetics

Description of the fate of drugs in the body, including a mathematical account of their absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion.

pharmacopoeia

Authoritative works containing descriptions of drugs and listing their specifications, their formulae and dosage forms and the methods for determining purity and strength. Pharmacopoeias also include specific and general test methodologies.

Pharmacopoeias are used in the practice of medicine (or veterinary medicine).

phase-out
phenotype

A cell's or organism's observable physical, biochemical or behavioural traits, which are an expression of genotype of the cell or organism, possibly in combination with the influence of its environment.

phenoxy herbicides or phenoxy acid herbicides

A group of herbicides chemically related to the plant growth hormone, indoleacetic acid (e.g. 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, MCPA)

pheromones

A chemical produced by insects or other animals for olfactory communication with other members of the same species. Pheromones may be produced to communicate a variety of different types of messages that aid the normal functioning of populations. Various pheromones may be related to communicate alarm or danger, territorial markings, aggregation or attractants, sexual information and attraction, trail marking and so on.

In insects, pheromones are predominantly mixtures of straight-chain unsaturated aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes and esters. Synthesised or extracted sex or aggregating hormones of a pest species may be used to upset behaviour of a pest population or to monitor the pest population.

phloem

Vascular tissue in a plant through which foods are transported from the leaves to the roots. The inner bark of woody plants.

photodecomposition
photodegradation

The decomposition of a chemical due to the action of light (usually ultraviolet light).

photolysis

The breakdown of chemicals due to the action of light.

photoperiodism

A physiological response of some plants and animals to daily length of daylight or darkness or the relative lengths of daylight and darkness. It includes responses such as flowering in some plants and hibernation or plumage changes in animals.

photosynthesis

A process peculiar to green plants whereby they can take in carbon dioxide and water vapour and convert them into complex sugar molecules, with the aid of sunlight.

physical compatibility

A mixture of chemicals that, under defined conditions, has satisfactory physical properties for the intended use(s).

physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK)

Modelling of the dose or degree of exposure to a chemical at a target tissue, cell or receptor, by integration of pharmacokinetic data with anatomical, physiological and biochemical data.

physiology

The science in which physical and mechanical actions peculiar to living organisms or tissues are studied.

phytoalexin

A principal substance that inhibits the development of a fungus on hypersensitive tissue, formed or activated only when host plant cells some in contact with the parasite.

phytotoxic

A damaging or otherwise unwanted effect on a plant, including any plant part or tissue, as a result of the use of an agricultural chemical product.

phytotoxicity

The property of causing a deleterious effect to plant tissues; of being toxic to plants.

PICs
pilot batch or pilot-scale batch

A batch that corresponds to a batch of at least 10 per cent of the production-scale batch using (or simulating) the methods to be used during the normal production process.

pilot trial

A trial that may use different versions of the formulation and/or multiple rates and application methods. They are used to confirm rates and instructions for pivotal studies and provide direction for the possible further development of a product.

pilot-plant scale

The production of an active constituent or chemical product by a procedure that is fully representative of, and simulating, the procedure to be used during normal production-scale manufacturing. All methods and steps used should be identical to the production-scale manufacturing process, and only differ in the scale of the production.

pilot-scale batch
pine release

The practice of applying a herbicide treatment to a mixed association of pines and broad-leaf woody species with the object of controlling the broad-leaf plants and promoting the growth of the conifers.

piscicide

A pesticide used against fish to kill or cause other adverse effects when administered in small doses.

piscine

Of, or pertaining to, fish.

piston pump

A pump in which liquid is, in turn, drawn in and expelled from cylinders by reciprocating pistons.

Also referred to as a ram pump.

pivotal trial

A trial that generally involves the actual formulated product to be commercialised as the test material. Tests are conducted as per the proposed label instructions. These trials are often small scale, replicated field trials that can be appropriately analysed by statistical methods. It is these studies that provide the most reliable evidence about the efficacy of a product.

PK/PD
place of residence

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

In relation to a body corporate that is incorporated in Australia, means its registered office in Australia.

placebo

A dosage form that contains all constituents of a formulation, except the active constituent. Also known as a 'blank'. Often used as a control in an experimental or clinical study.

plant

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means any vegetation or fungus and includes a seed or cutting of a plant, or any other part or product of a plant.

plant diseases

Harmful conditions or sicknesses that negatively affect plant life. May be caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes or viruses.

plant extracts
plant growth regulator
Plant Master File

A confidential document filed with the APVMA that provides complete information about a specific manufacturing facility.

plant rodlet

A small rodlet, usually a few centimetres in length and a few millimetres in diameter, containing an active constituent.

plant-derived pesticides
plants and animals
plasma

The liquid component of blood that holds red and white blood cells in suspension. It appears as a straw-coloured liquid above the layer of white blood cells in a spun human blood sample. Plasma is the blood serum along with the clotting factors.

plasmid

A small portion of DNA that exists outside the cellular nucleus and is capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA in the nucleus. Plasmids are commonly found in bacteria and can be horizontally transferred between bacteria by conjugation and transformation. Plasmids may carry genes for antibiotic resistance. Plasmids are also used in genetic engineering as vectors for DNA.

point mutation

An alteration to a DNA sequence through the insertion, deletion or substitution of a single base.

point of drip or point of run-off

When a spray is applied, the point at which it starts to drip or run off the ends of the leaves, down the stems of plants, or off the hair or feathers of animals.

poison

A chemical that can cause injury or death when eaten, absorbed or inhaled by plants or animals, including people. Poisons are listed in one of nine schedules of the Poisons Standard (or Standard for the uniform scheduling of medicines and poisons , published by under the published according to the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 by the Therapeutic Goods Administration, Department of Health), according to the level of controls recommended over their availability to the public.

poison bait or poisonous bait

A food or other substance that is mixed with a pesticide so that a pest will be attracted to it, will eat it, and then be killed by it.

poison schedule classification

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

In relation to a chemical product, means classification of the product or any of its constituents in the current Poisons Standard.

Poisons Schedules

A national classification system that controls how medicines and chemicals are made available to the public. Medicines and chemicals are classified into schedules according to the level of regulatory control (over the availability of the medicine or chemical) that is needed to protect public health and safety. These schedules accompany states' and territories' Poisons Acts and list the various poisons under categories that are based on the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Medicines Scheduling and the Advisory Committee on Chemicals Scheduling (ACCS) and published in the Poisons Standard. Agricultural and veterinary chemicals generally fall into one of the following categories:

  • Schedule 4—poisons that should, in the public interest, be restricted to medical, dental or veterinary prescription or supply. Labels of veterinary medicines in this schedule bear the signal heading 'Prescription animal remedy'.
  • Schedule 5—poisons of a hazardous nature that must be readily available to the public, but require caution in handling, storage and use. Labels of these products bear the signal heading 'Caution'.
  • Schedule 6—poisons that must be available to the public, but are of a more hazardous or poisonous nature than those classified in Schedule 5. Labels of these products bear the signal heading 'Poison'.
  • Schedule 7—poisons that require special precautions in manufacture, handling, storage or use, or special individual regulations regarding labelling or availability. Labels of these products bear the signal heading 'Dangerous poison' and may have other special labelling and restrictions on their supply, availability, possession and use.
  • Schedule 8—controlled drugs that should be available for use, but require restrictions of manufacture, supply, distribution, possession and use to reduce abuse, misuse or physical or psychological dependence.
  • Appendix B—those substance considered by the ACCS not to require control by scheduling because of their low toxicity. Inclusion in Appendix B is based on information available at the time of assessment. Labels of chemicals in Appendix B do not bear a signal heading.
poll

The top part of the head.

pollinators

Bees, flies and other insects that visit flowers and carry pollen from flower to flower.

polymorphism

The occurrence of different crystalline forms of the same drug substance. This may include solvation or hydration products and amorphous forms.

polyploidy

An extra or reduced number of complete sets of chromosomes.

pomace

The solid remains of fruit (eg apples, olives, grapes, tomatoes), after pressing for oil or juice, that may include the skins, seeds, stems and pulp, that is used as an animal feed.

pome

Fruit with an embedded core such as apples, pears and quinces.

pool or spa hypochlorite

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

Means a chemical product that:

  1. is for use in a swimming pool or spa that is for use by human beings, and
  2. is a formulation of calcium hypochlorite, lithium hypochlorite or sodium hypochlorite that complies with the standard (if any) last published for that formulation by the National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Products in the Gazette and in force on 31 October 1999.

Note The National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Products is the former name of APVMA.

POPs
population

The sum of the individuals of a given species or strain inhabiting a specified area.

The total number of individuals or objects being analysed or evaluated.

porcine

Of, or pertaining to, pigs.

Portfolio Budget Statement (PBS)

Information provided to senators and members of parliament on the proposed allocation of resources to government outcomes by agencies within the portfolio.

Positive control

A sample or study group that is treated with a product or treatment known to be effective, as a means of comparison to a test product, or to treatment with a product or treatment that provides an acceptable level of efficacy.

Post authorisation
post-antibiotic effects

Inhibitory effects on microorganism growth that occur after removal of certain antibiotics present at or above minimum inhibitory concentrations.

post-emergence

The application of a chemical to a crop after the crop or weed seedling has emerged through the ground.

A pesticide used to control a weed after the weed, or the crop, has appeared above the soil surface.

post-harvest

The period between maturity of the crop and the time of its final consumption.

post-harvest treatment

Treatments that are applied to raw commodities and processed foods and feeds to control a range of insect and disease organisms that could otherwise adversely affect the produce in storage before consumption. They can be applied by various means, including sprays, dips, drenches and brush applicators. For fresh fruit, a wax may also be applied and sometimes various detergents and rinse processes are used.

post-planting treatment

A treatment after the crop is planted (in the case of a transplanted crop).

potency

of a biological product

The strength of biological activity of a biological product. This is generally measured by a suitable quantitatively biological assay (or bioassay).

of a pesticide

The potency of a pesticide refers to how toxic the pesticide is to the pest.

A measurement of the activity of a batch of vaccine in terms of its ability to protect against challenge or induce a quantifiable immune response.

potential degradation product

An impurity that, from theoretical considerations, may arise during or after manufacture or storage of an active constituent or an agvet product. The impurity may or may not actually appear in the active constituent or the product.

potential impurity

An impurity that, from theoretical considerations, may arise from or during manufacture, but may or may not actually appear during the process or in the manufactured substance.

potentiate

To activate or to increase activity above normal.

potentiation

A situation in which one substance enhances the effect(s) of one or more other substances. When the combined action of two or more active constituents is greater than the sum of the effects of each alone.

pour point

The minimum temperature at which a material will flow under specified conditions.

pour-on or pour-on preparation

Insecticides with systemic properties that, when applied (poured) undiluted in small amounts onto a limited area of the back of an animal, become absorbed into the animal's body and are then translocated and become available to destroy internal and external parasites infesting other parts of the animal's body.

powder

Dry material in the form of particles up to 250 micrometres (µm) in diameter.

powder for dry seed treatment

A powder for application in the dry state, directly to the seed.

The APVMA formulation type code for powder for dry seed treatment is DS.

Practical zero withdrawal
Practice Statement

A directive from the Chief Executive Officer to APVMA officers that sets out the principles by which they are expected to operate and their responsibilities and obligations. Practice Statements are primarily aimed at providing guidance where there are multiple options for administering legal requirements, including where there are areas of discretion.

pralidoxime

An antidote used for treating cases of organophosphate poisoning, also known as 2-PAM. Not effective against carbamate poisoning.

pre-emergence

The period before a specified crop or weed has pushed up through the soil and become visible.

pre-emergence treatment

A treatment applied to the weeds or soil after the crop has been sown but before the crop has emerged from the soil. This treatment may be applied before the weeds emerge (a residual herbicide is used) or after the weeds emerge (a contact herbicide is used) but before the crop emerges.

pre-emergent

A pesticide used to control a weed before it has appeared above the soil.

pre-emergent incorporation

When an agricultural chemical product is applied after seeding and incorporated in the soil above the seed, before the emergence of the seedling.

pre-harvest

The time just prior to the picking, cutting or digging up of a crop.

An application of pesticide made just prior to harvest.

pre-harvest interval
pre-mixing

The process of 'creaming' a formulation by mixing it thoroughly with a small quantity of water so as to make it more readily dispersible when added to the spray tank or to a larger volume of water.

pre-planting

The application of a pesticide before planting a crop.

pre-sowing treatment

The application of a pesticide before the crop has been sown.

precautionary phrases

Phrases that describe the hazard associated with the normal or reasonably foreseeable handling or use of a substance and describe how to minimise exposure (health risks) to humans and animals. These phrases are assigned from appendixes to the Labelling of Workplace Hazardous Chemicals Code of Practice, published by Safe Work Australia.

precipitation

in meteorology

The falling of rain, sleet, snow, hail or dew. Measured in their equivalents in volume of water.

in chemistry

The settling out from a solution of insoluble substances formed through a chemical reaction. Often activity or efficacy of the chemical product(s) becomes lost when precipitation occurs.

precision

The closeness of agreement between mutually independent test results from an analytical method. Usually expressed as the variance, standard deviation or coefficient of variation of a series of measurements.

predacide

A chemical used against predatory vertebrate carnivores to kill or cause other adverse effects when administered in small doses. This refers chiefly to larger mammals, (eg canids and felids) and birds (eg hawks, owls and eagles).

predicted environmental concentration (PEC)

A concentration derived from set parameters, such as the concentration in water of a still water body (or soil) of 15 centimetre (cm) depth when sprayed at the label rate, unless evidence (use pattern, research, etc.) indicates otherwise (eg the product is incorporated to a depth of 5 cm).

preliminary assessment

An administrative check of newly lodged applications to determine whether the application appears to meet the application requirements.

premises

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code and s. 3 of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemical Products (Collection of Levy) Act 1994:

Includes any place (whether enclosed or built on or not), including a place situated under ground or under water, and, in particular, includes:

  1. a building, aircraft, vehicle or vessel, and
  2. any structure, whether a fixed structure, or a moveable structure such as a tent, and whether on land or the bed of any waters or floating on any waters, and
  3. a part of premises (including a part of premises of a kind referred to in paragraph (a) or (b)).
premix

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

Means a mixture that:

  1. contains vitamins, minerals, amino acids or other substances, and
  2. is intended to be added to stockfood to form a finished feed for feeding to a group of animals.
prescribed

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means prescribed by the Agvet Code […] or by the [Agvet Code] regulations .

prescribed civil penalty provision

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means a civil penalty provision that is prescribed by the [Agvet Code] regulations .

prescribed date for payment

From s. 3 of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemical Products (Collection of Levy) Act 1994:

In relation to any levy that is payable, means:

  1. if levy is payable because of an assessment that has been made—the date stated in the notice of assessment to be the date by which the levy is to be paid, or
  2. in any other case—the next 31 December following the end of the relevant financial year.

Note: As the levy is paid in arrears, levy might be payable in respect of a chemical product whose registration has ceased.

pressurised product

An aerosol or pressurised product that may be a liquid, solid, gas or mixture thereof, discharged by the propellant force of liquefied and/or non-liquefied compressed gas, usually from a disposable type of dispenser through a valve. This includes aerosols, pressurised sprays and pressurised foams.

previous registering authority

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means a registering authority under a corresponding previous law.

previously endorsed active constituent

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

For a chemical product, at a particular time, means a substance that:

  1. before that time, had been approved or registered (however described) under a law of the Commonwealth or a state or territory as an active constituent for a chemical product, or
  2. was an active constituent for a chemical product that, before that time, had been approved or registered (however described) under a law of the Commonwealth or a state or territory as a chemical product

whether or not the approval or registration was a result of an application by a particular person.

prills

Similar to granules, but manufactured so that the finely divided active constituent forms a coating around a core of some inert material.

primary active constituent
primary chemical product
primary holder

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means:

  1. in relation to a primary active constituent—the holder by whom, or on whose behalf, protected information was given to the APVMA in respect of the constituent, or
  2. in relation to a primary chemical product—the holder by whom, or on whose behalf, protected information was given to the APVMA in respect of the product.

 

Primary pack

The pack in which a product and its inner pack are presented for sale. Where the immediate container is placed in an outer pack, eg carton, which is not just packaging for the sole purpose of display or shipping, this outer pack will be the primary pack. Where the immediate container is itself the outermost packaging presented for sale or supply, it will also be the primary pack.

primary vaccination schedule

One or more administrations of a vaccine, with the second and any recommended subsequent doses given a short time after the first dose. The primary part of a vaccination schedule is necessary to obtain and maintain the level of protection claimed for the vaccine.

primiparous
private dwelling

Private dwelling house, boarding house, apartment house, common lodging house or special accommodation house.

probability

The likelihood or chance that an effect will follow, when an event occurs. Often simply classified into:

  • negligible—probability is extremely low or negligible
  • low—probability is low but clearly possible
  • medium—probability is likely
  • high—probability is very likely or certain.
probability sample
procedures

In terms of manufacturing, directions for performing routine operations (eg cleaning, clothing, environmental control, sampling, testing, equipment operation).

A person authorised by law to deliver legal papers to the defendant

process server

Person engaged to deliver or serve legal or official documents to a recipient and able to provide proof of service or delivery or diligence in the attempt to do so.

processed food

For the purpose of enforcing maximum residue limits, the term means the product that results from the application of physical, chemical or biological processes to a raw agricultural commodity, and is intended for direct sale to the consumer, for direct use as an ingredient in the manufacture of food or for further processing.

Raw agricultural commodities treated with ionising radiation, washed, sorted or submitted to similar treatment are not considered to be processed food.

Processed Sample
processing or re-export
Product

A formulation containing one or more active constituent(s)—and possibly non-active constituent(s)—that is intended for application, with or without dilution before use, and is labelled with directions for use.

Product name

trade name

product stewardship

Responsible and ethical proactive management of a product during manufacturing, storage, distribution, use, and disposal.

production-scale batch
prohibited chemical product

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Means a chemical product that is declared by the [Agvet Code] regulations to be a prohibited chemical product.

promoter

A region of DNA that initiates the transcription of a particular gene.

propellant

A liquefied gas in pressurised pesticides that forces the contents from the container through a small opening when a valve is activated.

prophylactic

Tending to prevent or control a disease, not to eradicate it.

protectant

A pesticide that is applied before pests are actually found, but where they are expected to be found.

A substance that protects an organism against infection by a pathogen.

Sometimes called a 'preventative'.

protectant fungicide

A chemical designed to prevent fungal infection when applied to plant surfaces before the arrival and development of the fungal pathogen.

protected active constituent
protected chemical product
protected commodity

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

A protected commodity is:

  • any substance or thing of a kind used, or capable of being used, as food or drink by human beings, or
  • any substance or thing of a kind used, or capable of being used, as an ingredient or additive in, any substance used in the preparation of, a substance of thing referred to above, or
  • any plant or animal, or
  • any soil, water or other environmental component, or
  • any other agricultural commodity, or
  • any animal feed, or
  • any other prescribed substance or thing, or
  • any substance or thing that is capable of being made into anything referred to above but does not include a therapeutic good within the meaning of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 .
protected information

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

Information or results given to the APVMA as required under paragraphs 32(1)(b) or 33(1) (a) or (c) or subparagraph 159(1)(d)(i), (ii) or (iii) [of the Agvet Code ] that have been obtained because of a trial or laboratory experiment, and relate to:

  • an active constituent that has been approved, or
  • a chemical product that has been registered.
protection period

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

In relation to protected information, the period that:

  • begins when the information is first given to the APVMA in relation to a reconsideration, and
  • ends 8 years after the APVMA makes its decision on the reconsideration.
protection statement

Labelling information on the protection of native and other non-target plants, livestock, crops, bees, wildlife, fish and aquatic organisms. It includes information on the prohibited use of products under adverse weather conditions, or from application equipment that may cause excessive spray drift, or use where there is risk of environmental contamination or damage.

protective equipment
protective fungicide

A pesticide that will prevent the establishment of a fungal infection (eg Bordeaux mixture for the control of blight in potatoes and tomatoes). Protective fungicides have to be applied before the disease appears and a protective coating of fungicide must be kept on the plant surfaces to prevent entry of the fungus.

protective gear
Protective Security Policy Framework (PSPF)

An Australian Government framework to protect its people, information and assets, at home and overseas.

protein (yeast) autolysate

A bait attractant prepared from industrial yeast by-products with added preservatives and stabilisers. In Australia, these prepared baits are used to attract fruit fly to a surface impregnated with insecticide (eg malathion or maldison, chlorpyrifos). The insecticide bait formulation is spot sprayed onto foliage and branches of fruit trees.

protozoa
pseudopolymorphs
PUBCRIS

Public Chemicals Registration Information System—the APVMA's public database of registered chemical products.

pubescent

Having hairy leaves or stems.

public health

The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through organised efforts of society.

Public Release Summary (PRS)

A published report that summarises the APVMA's evaluation of an agricultural or veterinary chemical product and its proposed determination on safety, efficacy and suitability of the product for registration. The PRS is released so that members of the public and relevant industry bodies may have an opportunity to raise matters of concern about human, animal and environmental safety, efficacy, and trade before a final decision on registration is made.

Public service areas

Schools, hospitals, restaurants, hotels, motels, cafes, rubbish tips and playground and recreational areas such as golf courses, municipal parks and gardens, etc.

published literature

From s. 3 of the Agvet Code:

In relation to a particular matter, all documents that relate to that matter and are accessible to the public.

pulses

The edible seeds of certain leguminous plants from the family Leguminoseae or Fabaceae that contain root nodules and are capable of symbiotic nitrogen fixation with bacteria of the genus Rhizobium, such as peas (field peas, chickpeas, cow pea, pigeon pea), beans (adzuki, faba, kudzu, mung, navy, winged), lentils, soya beans and lupins.

pupa

The life cycle stage for some insects between the larva and the adult. This stage is usually a non-feeding, immobile stage.

purchaser declaration number

From r. 3 of the Agvet Code Regulations (unless the contrary intention appears):

Means a distinguishing number issued in respect of premises by a state or territory or by an authority of a state or territory, for the purpose of identifying those premises as premises where animals to be treated with a hormonal growth promotant are, or are to be, kept.

pyrethroids

Synthetic analogues of natural pyrethrin insecticides, permethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin.