Acute Reference Doses for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals

1. Introduction

The Acute Reference Doses for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (ARfD List) provides a tabulation of acute reference doses (ARfDs; in units of mg/kg bodyweight) for each agricultural or veterinary (agvet) chemical listed, together with the NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect level) and uncertainty (or safety) factor used.

The 'Study' column provides information about the study, including study type, the LOAEL (lowest-observed-adverse-effect level) and the toxicology observations upon which the NOAEL and LOAEL were based.

The ‘Comments’ column may:

  1. provide further information about the basis for establishing a particular ARfD
  2. advise that an ARfD is not necessary (eg. the compound has very low acute toxicity)
  3. indicate that the ARfD has been adopted from that established by the FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR).

The ‘Date’ column indicates when particular ARfDs were established. For some chemicals, longer-term rather than acute dosing studies have been used to establish the ARfD. In these cases, the NOAEL was selected on the basis of toxicological effects observed after a single dose.

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This document includes recommendations made by the former Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals Standing Committee (PACSC) of the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and by the Office of Chemical Safety (OCS).

© Commonwealth of Australia 2017

ISSN 1446-1412

Any comments or enquiries relating to the entries in this document should be addressed to:

Australian Pesticide and Veterinary Medicines Authority
18 Wormald Street
Symonston ACT 2609

View our copyright information.

3. Printable version

View a printable PDF version of the ARfD list.

4. ARfD List

Chemical

ARfD (mg/kg bw)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw)

Date

Study

Comments

A

Abamectin

0.005

0.5

18 November 2003

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on foetal abnormalities (clubbed forefeet) at the next higher dose.

ARfD for abamectin only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Acetamiprid

0.1

10

27 July 2001

Single-dose gavage neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw was based on reductions in locomotor activity at the next higher dose.

 

Acetyl isovaleryltylosin tartrate

1.86

360

21 August 2006

Acute oral mouse study; a NOAEL of 360 mg/kg bw was based on the clinical signs observed at the next higher dose.

 

Acibenzolar-S-methyl

0.01

10 [LOAEL]

23 April 2002

Developmental rat study; based on haemorrhagic discharge in dams at LOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d.

 

Aldicarb

0.001

0.01

15 December 1999

Human acute study; a NOAEL of 0.01 mg/kg bw was based on significant and dose-related RBC AChE inhibition at the next higher dose.

 

Ametoctradin

   

1 February 2012

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Aminopyralid

   

10 January 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Amisulbrom

   

14 June 2016

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Atrazine

   

5 December 2000

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Aureobasidium pullulans

 

 

21 February 2017

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Azafenidin

0.016

16

4 July 2001

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 16 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased incidence of resorptions (predominantly early) at the next higher dose.

ARfD for azafenidin only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Azimsulfuron

   

10 January 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Azinphos-methyl

0.075

0.75

5 December 2000

Acute human study; a NOAEL of 0.75 mg/kg bw was based on the absence of RBC ChE inhibition or clinical signs.

 

B

Bacillus licheniformis

 

 

9 May 2002

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362

 

 

9 May 2003

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Bacillus subtilis

 

 

9 May 2002

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Bacillus thuringiensis

 

 

6 September 2002

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis serotype 1 (strain MPPL 002)

   

28 August 2003

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Benzylpenicillin procaine

   

10 October 2016

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Beta-cypermethrin

0.05

4.7

19 March 2002

3–month feeding dog study; a NOAEL of 4.7 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical signs (whole body tremors, head nodding, 'lip-licking', subduedness, ataxia, agitation and a high-stepping gait) at the next higher dose.

 

Bicyclopyrone

0.01

1

10 January 2017

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased incidence of urogenital malformations along with skeletal variations at the next higher dose.

ARfD for bicyclopyrone only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Bifenazate

   

10 January 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Bixafen

0.2

20

18 January 2016

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain in dams and foetuses at the next higher dose.

 

Boscalid

   

10 January 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Bromide

   

10 October 2016

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Bupivacaine

   

17 February 2017

 

There was insufficient information to establish an ARfD, however, based on its proposed pattern of use the dietary intake is likely to be low.

Buprofezin

0.5

50

31 October 2006

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 50 mg/kg bw/d was based on bodyweight loss at the next higher dose.

 

Butafenacil

   

19 November 2001

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

C

Captan

0.1

10

18 May 2007

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 10 kg bw/d was based on reduced maternal body weight and increased skeletal variations in foetuses at the next higher dose.

ARfD for captan only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Carbaryl

0.01

1

13 December 2002

Subchronic neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on behavioural indications of autonomic neurotoxicity and reduced brain, plasma and RBC ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Carbendazim

0.05

50 [LOAEL]

15 February 2011

Special acute study in male rats; based on significant testicular and efferent ductal alterations at 50 mg/kg bw, the lowest dose tested.

The ARfD is also supported by an acute in vivo genotoxicity study, with increased frequencies of micronuclei were observed in spermatids at a LOAEL of 50 mg/kg bw

Ceftiofur (as free acids and salts)

   

10 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Cephalexin

   

22 November 2000

 

ARfD is considered to be unnecessary; therapeutic dose for adults ranges between 1–4 g/day.

Cetrimide

   

10 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Chlorantraniliprole

   

9 May 2008

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Chlorfenvinphos

0.02

1.9

5 December 2000

14–day mouse study; a NOAEL of 1.9 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of RBC ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Chlormequat

0.07

7.5

23 June 2005

2–year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 7.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on excessive salivation and muscle weakness observed after a single dose.

 

Chloropicrin

   

16 January 2014

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Chlorpyrifos

0.1

1

5 December 2000

Single dose human study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of RBC ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Cinmethylin

0.3

30

20 August 2003

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical signs (excess salivation and urine stained abdominal fur) at the next higher dose.

 

Clitoria ternatea

 

 

23 November 2015

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

d-Cloprostenol

 

 

21 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Cloquintocet acid

   

5 July 2016

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Clothianidin

0.2

25

1 August 2003

Acute neurotoxicity mouse study; a NOAEL of 25 mg/kg bw was based on clinical signs (reduced spontaneous activity) at the next higher dose.

 

Codling Moth Granulosis Virus

   

25 November 2002

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Cyantraniliprole

   

21 January 2013

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Cyazofamid

   

6 June 2013

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Cyclaniliprole

   

29 Febraury 2016

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Cyflufenamid

   

10 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Cyhalofop-butyl

   

10 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

D

Decoquinate

   

4 June 2013

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Derquantel

0.01

1

27 May 2011

Acute neurotoxicity dog study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg was based on clinical signs (mydriasis, ptosis, dry eyes) at the next higher dose.

 

Dexamethasone

   

10 October 2016

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Diazinon

0.01

0.2

20 December 2002

Acute dose human volunteer study; a NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg was based on RBC ChE inhibition at the next higher dose.

 

2,6 dichlorobenzamide (BAM)

0.6

60

26 November 2015

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 60 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased incidence of skeletal defects of the vertebrae and sternebrae at the next higher dose.

ARfD for 2,6 dichlorobenzamide (BAM) applies to the general population.

2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)

0.8

75

12 September 2006

 

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 75 mg/kg bw was based on gait/coordination effects and decreased motor activity at the next higher dose.

 

Dichlorprop-P

   

10 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Dichlorvos

0.1

1

6 April 2004

Single oral dose human volunteer study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw was based on the absence of any reduction in RBC ChE activity at 1 mg/kg bw, the only dose tested.

 

Difethialone

0.0005

0.48 [LOAEL]

17 April 2007

Acute oral rat study; a LOAEL of 0.48 mg/kg bw was based on death.

 

Dimethenamid-P

0.25

25

12 August 2003

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 25 mg/kg bw/d was based on signs of toxicity in the foetus (reduced bodyweight and incomplete ossification) at the next higher dose.

ARfD for dimethenamid-P only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary. Note: Dimethenamid-P, the S-isomer, and its racemic mixture have equivalent toxicity at similar dose levels.

Dimethoate

0.02

0.2

23 November 2010

Human volunteer study; a NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on ChE inhibition in whole blood at the next higher dose.

 

Dinotefuran

1.25

125

10 August 2015

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 125 g/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Diquat

0.05

26.5

28 May 2002

Acute oral dog study; a NOAEL of 26.5 mg/kg bw was based on clinical signs (GIT effects) at the next higher dose.

 

Diuron

   

10 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Doramectin

0.02

1.5

14 October 2002

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 1.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on maternal toxicity with major malformations (cleft palate, phocomelia, syndactyly and coelosomia) observed in fetuses at 3 mg/kg bw/d and delayed ossification observed at 1.5 and 3 mg/kg bw/d.

ARfD for doramectin only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

E

Enterococcus faecium

 

 

4 September 2002

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Epoxiconazole

0.2

20

16 April 2002

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 15 mg/kg bw/d was based on skeletal variations (rudimentary ribs) at the next higher dose. Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased incidence of resorptions at the next higher dose.

ARfD for epoxiconazole only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Ethametsulfuron-methyl

   

17 January 2001

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Ethoxysulfuron

   

10 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Ethyl formate

   

26 November 2003

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Etoxazole

   

10 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

F

Fenamiphos

0.003

0.25

7 November 2005

Acute oral dog study; a NOAEL of 0.25 mg/kg bw was based on inhibition of RBC ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Fenbuconazole

   

10 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Fenitrothion

0.03

0.33

5 December 2000

Acute single dose human volunteer study; a NOAEL of 0.33 mg/kg bw was based on the absence of any inhibition of plasma and RBC ChE activity at the highest tested dose.

 

Fenpyrazamine

0.8

80

15 February 2017

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 80 mg/kg bw was based on a reduction in motor activity and number of rearings at the next higher dose.

 

Fipronil

0.02

2.5

19 June 2006

Two acute oral neurotoxicity rat studies; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw was based on reduced footsplay at the next higher dose.

This is a group ARfD value which includes fipronil, desulfinyl fipronil, fipronil sulphide and fipronil sulphone.

Flazasulfuron

   

26 September 2011

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Flonicamid

   

10 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Florasulam

   

26 May 2009

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Florfenicol

   

4 January 2001

 

ARfD considered unnecesary due to its low oral toxicity after a single dose; structural analogs of florfenicol have a long history of therapeutic use without acute effects.

Flubendiamide

   

14 December 2007

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Flumethrin

   

4 September 2001

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Flumiclorac pentyl

   

8 December 2004

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Flumioxazin

0.03

3

12 December 2002

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on embryo/foetal developmental toxicity with increased incidences of cardiovascular abnormalities at the next higher dose.

ARfD for flumioxazin only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Flunixin meglumine

0.02

2

1 August 2002

6–week rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based clinical signs (reduced activity) at the next higher dose.

 

Fluopicolide

0.6

60

26 November 2015

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 60 mg/kg d was based on increased incidence of skeletal defects of the vertebrae and sternebrae at the next higher dose.

ARfD for fluopicolide only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Fluopyram

0.5

50

6 July 2015

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 50 mg/kg bw/d was based on slightly lower motor and locomotor activity at the next higher dose.

 

Flupyradifurone

0.35

35

11 August 2015

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 35 mg/kg bw was based on increased incidences of piloerection and increased incidences of pupil dilation at the next higher dose.

 

Flutolanil

   

28 August 2001

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Fluxapyroxad

   

30 January 2012

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

G

Gamma-cyhalothrin

0.005

0.5

12 August 2003

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical signs of toxicity, reduced body weight gains and food consumption observed in dams at the next higher dose.

 

Glufosinate ammonium

   

28 August 2001

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

H

Halauxifen-methyl

   

17 September 2014

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Halofuginone

0.0003

0.025

16 June 2006

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 0.025 kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain and food consumption, mortality and abortions at the next higher dose.

ARfD for halofuginone only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Hexaflumuron

   

31 August 2001

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

I

Imazalil

0.05

5

29 January 2007

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 0.05 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased number of resorptions and a reduced number of live pups at the next higher dose.

ARfD for imazalil only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Indoxacarb

0.1

12.5

30 May 2008

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 12.5 mg/kg bw was based on reduced bodyweight gain and food consumption at the next higher dose.

 

Ipconazole

   

18 January 2010

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Isofetamid

3

300

9 March 2017

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 300 mg/kg bw/d is based on reduced maternal bodyweight gain early in gestation at the next higher dose.

 

Isopyrazam

0.3

30

24 May 2016

Rat acute neurotoxicity study; a NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bw was based on clinical signs of toxicity (weak appearance and decreased activity).

 

Ivermectin

0.01

0.15

29 July 2003

Human therapeutic study; based on dose of 0.15 mg/kg bw, at which level no teratogenicity or significant ivermectin related toxicity appear to have been observed across some millions of patients over a period of many years.

A number of studies in humans support the selection of the 0.15 mg/kg bw dose.

K

Ketoprofen

0.001

0.1

8 December 2000

Acute pharmacological rabbit study; a NOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw was based on inhibition of platelet aggregation at the next higher dose.

 

L

         

Lactobacillus acidophilus

   

4 September 2002

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Lactobacillus brevis

   

4 September 2002

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Lactobacillus casei

   

4 September 2002

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Lactobacillus plantarum

   

4 September 2002

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Lignocaine

   

10 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

M

Maldison

1.5

15

12 April 2005

Acute oral human study; a NOAEL of 15 mg/kg bw was based on inhibition of RBC and plasma ChE activity at the higher dose.

 

Mandestrobin

   

30 March 2016

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Mandipropamid

   

9 April 2010

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Mecoprop

0.5

50

17 January 2001

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 50 mg/kg bw/d was based on embryolethality and foetotoxicity (lower bodyweight and shorter CR length) at the next higher dose.

ARfD for mecoprop only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Mecoprop-p

0.5

50

17 January 2001

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 50 mg/kg d was based on embryolethality and foetotoxicity (lower bodyweight and shorter CR length) at the next higher dose.

ARfD for mecoprop-p only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Meloxicam

0.004

0.04

4 August 2004

Human clinical trial; a pharmacological NOAEL of 0.04 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased blood pressure, pulse rate and ECG at higher doses.

 

Mesosulfuron-methyl

   

18 January 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Metazachlor

   

15 July 2016

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Methamidophos

0.003

0.3

30 January 2004

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 0.3 mg/kg bw was based on plasma, RBC and brain ChE inhibition at the next higher dose.

 

Methidathion

0.01

1

31 May 2004

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw was based on RBC and brain ChE inhibition at the next higher dose.

 

Methiocarb

0.03

3

5 December 2001

Four-week rat gavage study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on plasma, RBC and brain ChE inhibition at the next higher dose.

 

Methoxyfenozide

   

12 January 2001

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

1-Methylcyclopropene

   

10 October 2003

 

There was insufficient information to establish an ARfD, however, based on its proposed pattern of use the dietary intake is likely to be low.

Metrafenone

   

13 April 2010

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Metarhizium Anisopliae var. Acridum (isolate FI-985)

   

4 September 2003

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Metribuzin

   

18 January 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Mevinphos

0.003

0.025

5 December 2000

28–day human volunteer study; a NOAEL of 0.025 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of RBC ChE activity and clinical signs at the next higher dose.

 

Milbemectin

0.06

6

29 April 2005

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 6 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced maternal bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

ARfD for milbemectin only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Monepantel

   

31 August 2009

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Moxidectin

0.01

1

28 March 2002

28–day dietary dog study and developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 1 kg bw/d was based on neurotoxicity at the next higher dose (in dogs); and maternal toxicity (reduced weight gain) at the next higher dose (in rabbits).

 

N

Niclosamide

   

20 September 2016

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Novaluron

   

17 January 2001

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of helicoverpa armigera occlusion bodies

   

17 December 2003

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

O

Omethoate

0.003

0.25

20 October 2005

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 0.25 mg/kg bw was based on plasma ChE inhibition at the next higher dose.

 

Ortho-Phenylphenol

   

31 July 2003

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Oxathiapiprolin

   

30 July 2015

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Oxytetracycline

   

10 October 2016

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

P

Paraquat

0.004

0.45

27 June 2003

1–year chronic feeding dog study; a NOAEL of 0.45 kg bw/d was based on the likelihood that the observed pulmonary lesions would also occur after an acute exposure at the next higher dose.

 

Penflufen

0.5

50

10 October 2012

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 50 mg/kg bw was based on decreased motor and locomotor activity at the next higher dose.

 

Phenmedipham

   

13 April 2011

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Penthiopyrad

1

125

10 February 2017

Acute oral neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 125 mg/kg bw was based on clinical signs (decreased motor activity, decreased body temp, hunched postion and unsteady gait) at the next higher dose.

 

Pinoxaden

0.3

30

29 August 2005

Developmental toxicity rabbit study; a NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bw/d was based on early resorption, implantation loss, lower number of live births and reduced foetal weight at the next higher dose.

ARfD for pinoxaden only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Porcine gonadotrophins

   

25 June 2002

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Procymidone

0.03

3.5

13 December 2004

Developmental toxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 3.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on decreased anogenital distance in male fetuses at the next higher dose.

ARfD for procymidone only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Profoxydim

   

29 November 2006

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Prohexadione-calcium

   

18 January 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Propamocarb

2

200

26 November 2015

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 200 mg/kg bw was based on a reduced activity 1 h after dosing at the next higher dose.

 

Propineb

0.003

0.32

22 February 2017

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 0.32 kg bw/d was based on skeletal variations at the next higher dose.

This group ARfD value which includes propineb and propylene thiourea (PTU) only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Propylene oxide

0.4

205

21 April 2006

Inhalation developmental toxicity rat study; a NOAEC of 300 ppm (equivalent to NOAEL of 205 mg/kg bw/d) was based on increased incidence of 7th cervical rib at the next higher dose.

ARfD for propylene oxide only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Propylene thiourea (PTU)

0.003

0.32

22 February 2017

 

See group ARfD for Propineb.

Proquinazid

1

100

10 February 2017

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 100 mg/kg bw was based on reduced motor activity at the next higher dose.

 

Prosulfocarb

0.4

40

30 July 2007

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 40 mg/kg bw was based on reduced motor activity at the next higher dose.

 

Prothioconazole

0.03

3

28 May 2008

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 3 kg bw/d was based on increased incidence of 14th rib, increased resorptions and cleft palate at the next higher dose.

ARfD for prothioconazole only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary. Since the residue definition for risk assessment in all commodities is expressed as prothioconazole-desthio and this metabolite is of higher toxicity than the parent, a group ARfD was established to include prothioconazole-desthio.

Pyraclostrobin

0.05

5

26 June 2008

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on early resorptions at the next higher dose.

ARfD for pyraclostrobin only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Pyraflufen-ethyl

0.2

20

17 December 2004

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased maternal mortality and morbidity at the next higher dose.

 

Pyrasulfotole

0.2

200 [LOAEL]

20 August 2008

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; based on decreased motor and locomotor activity at a LOAEL of 200 mg/kg bw.

 

Pyrethrins

0.2

20

31 July 2003

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg bw was based on neurotoxicity observed at the next higher dose.

Adopted from JMPR ‘99.

Pyridalyl

   

29 April 2004

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Pyrimethanil

   

10 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Pyriofenone

   

26 November 2014

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Pyroxasulfone

1

100

23 September 2011

Neurodevelopmental rat study; a NOAEL of 100 mg/kg bw/d was based on decreased brain weight, reduced hippocampus thickness, corpus callosum, and cerebellum in offspring at the next higher dose.

ARfD for pyroxasulfone only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Pyroxsulam

   

14 April 2008

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Q

Quinclorac

2

200

13 September 2004

Acute oral toxicity gavage mouse study; a NOAEL of 200 kg bw was based on clinical signs at the next higher dose.

 

Quinoxyfen

   

15 January 2002

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

R

Ractopamine hydrochloride

0.001

0.13

30 July 2002

Human study; a NOAEL of 0.13 kg bw was based on increased heart rate at the next higher dose.

 

S

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

   

4 September 2002

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Saflufenacil

0.05

5

13 February 2017

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 5 kg bw/d was based on an increased incidence of bent scapula and wavy ribs in the absence of maternal toxicity at the next higher dose.

ARfD for salflufenacil only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Spinetoram

   

5 May 2008

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Spirotetramat

1

100

26 May 2008

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 100 kg bw was based on clinical signs and decreased motor activity at the next higher dose.

 

Spiroxamine

0.2

20

2 July 2001

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 20 kg bw was based on decrease in landing footsplay at the next higher dose.

 

Streptomyces lydicus

   

7 June 2016

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Sulfoxaflor

0.25

25

27 June 2013

Acute oral neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 25 kg bw was based on decreased motor activity at the next higher dose.

 

Sulfuryl Fluoride

0.3

31

24 August 2006

Acute inhalational neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 31 kg bw (300 ppm) was based on the absence of any observed effects at the highest tested concentration of 300 ppm.

 

T

Tebuconazole

   

27 August 2010

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Tepraloxydim

   

13 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Terbuthylazine

   

4 May 2001

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Tetraconazole

0.2

16

12 December 2002

4–week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 16 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical signs at the next higher dose.

 

Thiacloprid

0.03

3.1

20 July 2001

Acute oral neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 3.1 mg/kg bw was based on reduced motor & locomotor activity at the next higher dose.

 

Thiophanate-methyl

0.2

20

15 February 2011

Developmental toxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg bw/d was based on increase in foetal skeletal variations (supernumerary ribs, reduced lumbar vertebrae) at the next higher dose.

ARfD for thiophanate-methyl only applies to women of child-bearing age. An ARfD for the general population is considered to be unnecessary.

Thiram

0.1

10

2 July 2010

Acute neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw was based on reduced locomotor activity at the next higher dose.

 

Tilmicosin

0.4

36

29 August 2002

7–day oral dosing (capsule) dog study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on the absence of clinical signs (ataxia, dyspnoea, bilateral mydriasis) during the first 4 days of dosing.

 

Tolfenamic acid

0.005

[0.5]

16 January 2001

Lowest effective therapeutic dose (as a single dose) for treatment of pyresis in children.

 

Topramezone

   

16 June 2016

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Trifloxysulfuron

   

13 February 2017

 

ARfD considered to be unnecessary due to its low oral toxicity or the absence of any developmental toxicity after a single dose.

Tulathromycin

0.1

100

16 August 2006

Acute tolerance dog study; a LOAEL of 100 mg/kg bw was based on the occurrence of emesis and loose stools.

 

U

Ulocladium oudemansii

 

 

12 December 2003

 

ARfD unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Z

Zilpaterol

0.00004

0.00076[LOAEL]

24 October 2016

Single dose human study; a LOAEL of 0.05 mg/person (equal to 0.00076 mg/kg bw) was based on the observation of tremors at the lowest tested dose.

 

 

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