Acceptable daily intakes for agricultural and veterinary chemicals

Edition 2/2020, current as of 30 June 2020

Preface

This document sets out the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) for agricultural and veterinary (agvet) chemicals used on food producing crops or animals. It includes entries which were recommended by the former Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals Standing Committee (PACSC) of the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) until November 1992. The responsibility for establishing ADIs transferred to the Australian Department of Health on 12 March 1993. On 1 July 2016, the task of establishing ADIs was transferred to the Australian Pesticide and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA).

ADIs which had been established by all previous Australian authorities are included in this document provided the agvet chemical is currently approved for use in food producing animals or crops. Agvet chemicals which are no longer approved for use by the APVMA have been removed. However, where persistent residues of agvet chemicals which are no longer approved may sporadically be detected in some crops, a tolerable daily intake (TDI) (with the same numerical value as the original ADI) is included in the table as a reference. An ADI is usually only established for agvet chemicals which are intentionally used in food producing crops, animals or crops used for stock feed. In this table the term TDI is reserved for agvet chemicals which are not intentionally used in food producing animals or crops.

Introduction

Over the past several decades, pesticides and other agricultural chemicals and veterinary drugs have become an important factor in food production. The availability of these chemicals has enabled significant increases in agricultural productivity to be achieved.

While the consumption of agvet chemicals is not desirable in itself, ingestion of these substances in the form of residues in agricultural produce may occur as a consequence of their intended use. Residues resulting from proper agricultural use are either very low or not detected as has been consistently demonstrated in several Australian Total Diet Studies. Australian Total Diet Studies, previously known as Australian Market Basket Surveys, are a comprehensive assessment of consumers’ dietary exposure (intake) to pesticide residues, contaminants and other substances.

Australian Total Diet Studies are undertaken by Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) approximately every two years and involve purchasing food from local stores in each state of Australia and preparing them to a ‘table ready’ state before they are analysed. As a consequence, both raw and cooked foods (for example, potatoes) are examined. Results of completed Australian Total Diet Studies are available on the FSANZ website.

Prior to the registration of an agricultural or veterinary chemical product applicants are required to provide the APVMA with relevant information, such as toxicological studies, to support the safe use of a product. Toxicological studies required for agricultural and veterinary chemicals range from those measuring single dose effects to those which examine the effects of lifetime exposure. Toxicity studies are generally performed in laboratory animals, such as rats and rabbits, and are designed to identify potential toxic effects which may be important for humans. The studies usually involve the feeding/administration of various levels of the compound under investigation to animals, followed by observation and monitoring of clinical parameters and pathology which are indicative of toxicity in the test species. The range of toxicological studies usually undertaken is described under ‘Data guidelines’ which are available on the APVMA website.

The hazard from a chemical is determined by identifying the acute toxicity by the most likely routes of exposure, together with tests for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation. The potential for toxicity over longer periods, including possible tumour induction, is determined by studying the effects of repeated dosing, in some cases for the entire lifespan of the species. Multi-generation and developmental studies predict reproductive toxicity and the potential to cause birth defects, and studies are performed to assess the potential to cause effects on genetic material. Other specific investigations also may be required to clarify the mechanism of toxicity of a particular chemical.

Designs for the conduct of toxicological studies have become standardised to a large extent and international guidelines have been developed to achieve consistency in experimental techniques. In general, groups of the test species/organism are exposed to a number of dose levels (usually three) of the substance and a further group is left unexposed (control group). The treatment levels are selected so that the highest dose will cause some obvious toxic effects, while the lowest dose at least, should not result in a toxic effect. These toxicological studies are assessed with a view to determining the potential hazards associated with exposure to the chemical. Assessment of individual toxicity studies includes the determination of a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), which is the highest administered dose which does not cause any detectable (usually adverse) effect in the study. The overall NOAEL for a chemical, determined in the most sensitive species, is then used to estimate the acceptable daily intake.

The ADI for humans is considered to be a level of intake of a chemical that can be ingested daily over an entire lifetime without any appreciable risk to health. It is calculated by dividing the overall NOAEL from the animal studies by an uncertainty (safety) factor. The magnitude of the uncertainty factor is intended to account for uncertainties in extrapolating animal data to humans, variation between humans and completeness of the toxicological database.

The most common uncertainty (or safety) factor is 100 which takes into account that humans may be 10 times more sensitive to the chemical than laboratory animals and that a proportion of the population may be 10 times more sensitive than the average person. Where there is satisfactory information in humans, there is no necessity to extrapolate from animal data and an uncertainty factor of 10 is considered adequate to account for inter-individual variation. On the other hand when uncertainty is increased because the toxicity data base is incomplete, an additional uncertainty factor of 10 to 20 may be incorporated. In these situations, the overall NOAEL is divided by an uncertainty factor of 1000 to 2000 in determining the ADI.

It is important to note that the toxicological studies on which the overall NOAEL is based are invariably carried out by oral dosing of laboratory animals and usually by incorporation of the chemical in the diet. The subsequent establishment of an ADI is thus directed to human exposure by the oral route.

Due to likely differences in absorption and other kinetic and metabolic parameters, the comparison of exposure by non-oral routes with the ADI should be interpreted with caution.

Notes

  1. Use of the terms JMPR or JECFA in the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) column indicates that the Australian ADI has been adopted from the figure established by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) or the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).
  2. (H) indicates that the NOAEL was determined on the basis of experimental data in humans.
  3. (LOAEL) indicates that no NOAEL has been identified in a pivotal study.
  4. The words 'not specified' in the ADI column indicates that there is a large margin of safety for consumption of residues in food when the chemical is used according to good agricultural/veterinary practice. Due to low levels of residues and the lack of oral activity of these chemicals, a numerical ADI is not considered necessary.
  5. (M) indicates that the ADI is derived from microbiological data.
  6. TDI means tolerable daily intake. ADIs are not maintained for those agricultural and veterinary chemicals that are no longer permitted for use in agricultural practice. However, residues of certain environmentally persistent pesticides may occur as residues in agricultural commodities as a consequence of past use. In these cases, health intake values are maintained as tolerable daily intake values, to serve as a guideline with which potential dietary intakes of these environmentally persistent chemicals can be compared.

Contact

If you have any questions about the ADI list, or require this content in another format, please contact:

Assistant Director, Communications
Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority
GPO Box 3262
Sydney NSW 2001 Australia
Telephone: +61 2 6700 2300
Email: communications@apvma.gov.au.

Alpha list of chemicals

Select a letter below to view chemicals in the ADI list by alphabetical order.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Abamectin

(sum of abamectin + 8,9-Z isomer)

0.001

0.12

6 August 2018

Relevant NOAELS:

Abamectin

A NOAEL of 0.12 mg/kg bw/d was established on reduced body weight and delayed age of vaginal opening following dosing at 0.20 mg/kg bw/d in post-weaning pups in two rat developmental neurotoxicity studies.

8,9-Z isomer of avermectin B1a

Mice: NOAEL 3 mg/kg bw/d based on developmental toxicity.

Rats: NOAEL of 0.40 mg/kg bw/d based on a one-generation reproductive and developmental toxicity study.

A total uncertainty factor of 100 has been applied.

The ADI also applies to the 8,9-Z isomer of avermectin B1a and 24-hydroxymethyl abamectin.

The 24-hydroxymethyl metabolite of abamectin is regarded as having no greater toxicity than the parent molecule.

Acephate

0.003

0.25

2005

28 day study in humans. No inhibition of plasma or erythrocyte cholinesterases activities were detected at 0.25 mg/kg bw/day (the highest dose tested; NOAEL). There were no treatment-related changes from baseline values for any haematology, clinical chemistry, electrocardiogram or urine analysis parameters, and no changes in vital signs or physical examination.

The critical toxicological effect of acephate is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in the nervous system, an effect that is dependent on Cmax rather than on the area under the curve (AUC).

Data on inhibition in vitro indicate that human brain acetylcholinesterase is slightly less sensitive to inhibition by acephate than is rat brain acetylcholinesterase. Well conducted toxicokinetics studies, available for both rats and humans, show that there is no significant difference between the two species; in particular, Cmax values have the same relationship to administered dose in the two species, and acephate is rapidly absorbed and eliminated in both species.

Data for rats in vivo indicate that inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase activity occurs at lower doses than those required for a similar level of inhibition of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity.

Data for dogs and monkeys in vivo indicate that brain and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activities are nearly equally inhibited at any given dose, and do not show the difference seen in rats, which might thus be rat-specific. Well-conducted single- and repeated-dose studies in humans clearly demonstrated a dose where no inhibition of blood cholinesterase activities occurred. Data from animals in vivo do not show sex differences in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity or clinical signs. Since there is no interspecies extrapolation, an overall safety factor of 10 was used.

Acetamiprid

0.1

9

 

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 9 mg/kg bw/d was based on reductions in bodyweight gain and food consumption, increased incidence of hepatocellular hypertrophy and vacuolation observed in the liver at the next higher dose.

 

Acibenzolar-S-methyl

0.005

5 (LOAEL)

23 April 2002

1-year dietary dog study; based on haematological changes associated with anaemia observed at the LOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d.

 

Acifluorfen

0.01

1

15 September 1999

2-year dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on increases in liver weight and plasma enzymes (ALT, AST, AP), with adrenal degeneration observed at the next higher dose. This NOAEL was supported by a 2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.2 mg/kg bw/d was based myocardial degeneration with fibrosis in the liver and heart at the next higher dose.

 

Acrolein

0.0005

0.05

15 March 1994

2-year gavage rat study; a NOAEL of 0.05 mg/kg bw/d was based on mortality and serum biochemical effects at the next higher dose.

 

Afidopyropen

0.07

7.3

27 November 2017

1-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 7.3 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical chemistry changes (prolonged prothrombin time and reduced cholesterol level) secondary to liver toxicity (hepatocellular vacuolation) at the next higher dose.

 

Albendazole

0.05

5

9 August 1994

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced size and weight, delayed ossification, increased incidences of micromelia and microfetalis at the next higher dose. This NOAEL was supported by a 6-month dog (capsule) study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on hypocellularity of the sternum at higher doses.

 

Aldrin

0.0001 (TDI)

JMPR'94

21 October 2003

 

Tolerable daily intake. Traditional ADI not maintained as aldrin is no longer used in agricultural practice and does not have industrial sponsors. Numerical tox. End-point maintained to serve as a guideline with which potential dietary intakes can be compared.

Alpha-Cypermethrin

 

 

 

 See α-Cypermethrin

 

Alpha-trenbolone

0.0001

0.01

10 February 1988

 

 

Altrenogest

0.000002

0.004

13 August 1992

13-week dietary monkey study; a NOAEL of 0.004 mg/kg bw/d was based on partial or complete menstrual cycle inhibition at the next higher dose. 13-week dietary pig study; a NOAEL of 0.004 mg/kg bw/d was based on oestrus suppression at the next higher dose.

 

Ametoctradin

10

1000

1 February 2012

2-year studies in rats and mice showed no adverse effects at the highest tested dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/d.

 

Ametryn

0.02

2

17 November 1989

2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on a reduction in body weight and body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Aminoethoxyvinylglycine

0.0002

0.2

28 September 2000

3-month dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on a reduction in blood AST activity at the next higher dose.

 

Amicarbazone

0.02

2

9 June 2006

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain in the absence of a change in feed consumption.

 

Aminopyralid

0.3

26

28 September 2005

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 26 mg/kg bw/d was based on transient incoordination in dams at the next higher dose.

 

Amisulbrom

0.1

11

14 June 2016

1-year rat dietary study; a NOAEL of 11 mg/kg/d was based on increased incidence and severity in bile duct hyperplasia at the next higher dose. 18-month dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 11 mg/kg/d was based on increased relative liver weight and hepatocellular adenoma at the next higher dose.

 

Amitraz

0.002

0.25

5 November 1986

2-year capsule fed dog study; a NOAEL of 0.25 mg/kg bw/d was based on elevated blood glucose at the next higher dose.

 

Amitrole

0.0003

0.025

3 May 1984

13-week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.025 mg/kg bw/d was based on TSH-induced hyperplasia in the thyroid gland at the next higher dose.

 

Amoxycillin

0.2

200

8 March 1995

2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 200 mg/kg bw/d was based on a slightly decreased pregnancy rate at the next higher dose.

 

Amprolium

0.1

20

18 June 2019

2 year dietary rat study, NOEL of 20 mg/kg bw/day based on decreased bodyweights at 200 mg/kg bw/day. An uncertainty factor of 200 based on methodological weaknesses in the study (EMEA, 2001).

 

Apramycin

0.05

5

29 May 1986

90-day dog oral study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased relative testis weight at the next higher dose.

 

Asulam

0.02

40

December 1985

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 40 mg/kg bw/d was based on thyroid enlargement with hyperplasia at the next higher dose.

 

Atrazine

0.005

0.5

1 December 1996

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on mammary tumours in females at the next higher dose.

 

Aureobasidium pullulans

 

 

21 February 2017

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Avilamycin

1

108

19 December 1997

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 108 mg/kg bw/d was based on absence of any observed toxicity at the highest tested dose.

 

Azafenidin

0.0004

0.04

4 July 2001

3-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.04 mg/kg bw/d was based on porphyrin and pigment accumulation in the liver and other liver toxicity at the next higher dose.

 

Azamethiphos

0.003

0.25

29 May 1996

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.25 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of plasma, RBC and brain ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Azaperone

0.1

10

5 August 1983

 

 

Azimsulfuron

0.2

18

9 September 2002

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 18 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain and brown pigment deposition the liver at the next higher dose.

 

Azinphos-methyl

0.025

0.25 (H)

26 August 2002

28-day repeat-dose human study; a NOAEL of 0.25 mg/kg bw/d was based the absence of any inhibition of plasma or RBC ChE at 0.25 mg/kg bw/d, the only dose tested.

 

Azoxystrobin

0.1

10

29 September 1998

3-month oral (gelatin capsule) dog study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weights, increased salivation and vomiting at the next higher dose.

 

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B

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

 

 

9 May 2002

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Bacillus licheniformis

 

 

9 May 2002

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362

 

 

9 May 2003

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Bacillus subtilis (see Bacillus amyloliquefaciens)

 

 

 

 

 

Bacillus thuringiensis

 

 

6 September 2002

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis serotype 1 (strain MPPL 002)

 

 

28 August 2003

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Bacitracin

0.1

10

26 May 1997

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 75 mg/kg bw/d Albac (10 mg/kg bw/d bacitracin) was based on increased salivation and reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose.

An uncertainty (safety) factor of 100 was considered appropriate due to the poor gastrointestinal absorption of bacitracin.

Bambermycin

0.3

29

14 September 2001

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 29 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased kidney and liver weight at the next higher dose.

Previously named: Flavophospholipol

Beauveria bassiana

 

 

8 August 2017

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Benalaxyl

0.05

5

1 December 1988

13-week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on hepatic enlargement at the next higher dose.

 

Bendiocarb

0.004

0.4

8 June 1993

Reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 0.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced maternal weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Benfluralin

0.05

5

18 February 1987

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on elevated platelets and total WBC at the next higher dose.

 

Bensulfuron-methyl

0.02

2.5

10 September 1987

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight at the next higher dose.

 

Bensulide

0.04

4

4 February 1982

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 4 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of RBC and plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Bentazone

0.1

10

10 June 2005

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on decreased food consumption, associated reduced body weight gain and altered absolute and relative kidney, brain, heart, liver and spleen weights at the next higher dose.

 

Benzofenap

0.004

0.4

27 March 1998

2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 0.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced pup survival at the next higher dose.

 

Benzovindiflupyr

0.05

4.9

23 July 2018

Based on the NOAEL of 4.9 mg/kg bw/d in a 2-year rat feeding study. The key effects were decreased body weight gain and increased incidence of eosinophilic foci of cellular alteration in the liver at 27.4 mg/kg bw per day. This is supported by the NOAEL of 7.55 mg/kg bw per day in a mouse 80-week chronic feeding study where colon/caecum mucosal hyperplasia was detected at 26.18 mg/kg bw/d. The relevant repeat dose NOAELs for metabolites SYN545720 and SYN546039, which were found in rats, soil and plants, were ≥ 1000 mg/kg bw/d.

A total uncertainty factor of 100 was applied.

Benzylpenicillin procaine

0.03 mg/person/d

 

10 October 2016

Long history of safe use in human medicine.

In the absence of adequate data to establish a NOAEL, JECFA recommended that the daily intake from food be kept as low as practicable (JECFA-99; H).

6-Benzyladenine

0.01

10

[LOAEL]

3 October 2018

Based on a rabbit developmental study where maternal toxicity (reduced body weight, body weight gain and food consumption) was detected at the LOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d.

A total uncertainty factor of 1000 was considered appropriate due to the incomplete database (no chronic studies) and the absence of a detectable NOAEL in the rabbit developmental study.

Beta-Cyfluthrin

 

 

 

See β-Cyfluthrin

 

Beta-Cypermethrin

 

 

 

See β-Cypermethrin

 

Beta-Trenbolone

0.00001

0.001

10 February 1988

 

 

Bicyclopyrone

0.001

0.28

26 November 2015

1-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.28 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased kidney weight, chronic progressive nephropathy and thyroid follicular hyperplasia, along with changes in urine clinical chemistry parameters, corneal opacity and corneal damage at the next higher dose.

 

Bifenazate

0.01

1

12 December 2002

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose. 1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain, haematological and clinical chemistry effects, urine changes, organ weight changes and histopathological effects at the next higher dose.

 

Bifenthrin

0.01

1

26 November 1992

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on maternal tremors at the next higher dose.

 

Bioresmethrin

0.03

3

20 June 1991

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on hepatotoxicity at the next higher dose.

 

Bitertanol

0.01

1

15 November 1982

13-week gavage dog study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on scaly skin with erythema, alopecia, mucosal irritation and reduced prostate weight at the next higher dose.

 

Bixafen

0.02

2

18 January 2016

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2.0 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight and thyroid effects (higher incidence and/or severity of colloid alteration) at the next higher dose.

 

Bixlozone

0.3

34

18 July 2019

2-generation reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 34 mg/kg bw/d was based on the persistent perturbations of parental weight gains and reduced body weight gains in preweaning pups at the next higher dose.

 

Boscalid

0.06

6

15 August 2003

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 6 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical signs at the next higher dose.

 

Brodifacoum

0.0000005 (TDI)

0.001

16 May 1990

13-week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.001 mg/kg bw/d was based on prolonged blood clotting (prothrombin) time at the next higher dose.

Tolerable daily intake. An ADI was not established as brodifacoum residues are not expected to be present in the food supply. A TDI is maintained to serve as a guideline with which potential dietary exposure assessments can be undertaken in the event of unintentional presence.

Bromacil

0.1

10

10 February 1988

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain, food efficiency and thyroid hyperplasia at the next higher dose.

 

Bromadiolone

0.000002 (TDI)

0.004

18 January 1994

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 0.004 mg/kg bw/d was based on maternotoxicity, increased resorptions and reduced foetal weight at the next higher dose.

Tolerable daily intake. An ADI was not established as bromadiolone residues are not expected to be present in the food supply. A TDI is maintained to serve as a guideline with which potential dietary exposure assessments can be undertaken in the event of unintentional presence.

Bromide

1

9 (H)

10 October 2016

12-week oral human study; no neurophysiological or endocrinological effects were observed at the highest tested dose of 9 mg/kg bw/d.

(JMPR-88).

Bromopropylate

0.03

2.8

31 May 1994

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 2.8 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Bromoxynil

0.003

0.3

19 February 1993

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.3 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Bromuconazole

0.02

2

17 June 1994

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on fatty vacuolation and nodular hyperplasia in the liver at the next higher dose.

 

Bupirimate

0.05

5

7 June 1978

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain, increased relative and absolute thyroid weight and an increase in thyroid follicular adenomas at the next higher dose. 2-year oral (gelatin capsule) dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased serum alkaline phosphatase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase at the next higher dose.

 

Bupivacaine

0.001

1 [LOAEL]

10 June 2008

A LOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw was calculated from the lowest therapeutic dose.

 

Buprofezin

0.01

1

18 January 2000

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased kidney and heart weights and thickening and hyperplasia of thyroidal epithelial cells at the next higher dose. This NOAEL is supported by a 2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 0.9 mg/kg bw/d was based on maternotoxicity and foetotoxicty at the next higher dose.

 

Butafenacil

0.004

0.36

12 April 2001

Based on a NOAEL of 0.36 mg/kg bw/day from an 18-month mouse (mammalian species most sensitive to protoporphyringogen oxidase inhibition) study where haematological effects and hepatotoxicity occurred at the next higher dose. This is supported by a rat 2-year study NOEL of 1.14 mg/kg bw/day with hepatoxicity occurring at the next highest dose. Rodents are up 19-fold more sensitive to protoporphyringogen oxidase inhibition compared with humans based on in vitro IC50 comparison.

A total uncertainty factor of 100 has been applied.

Butralin

0.2

15

14 August 1992

Developmental gavage rabbit study; a NOAEL of 15 mg/kg bw/d was based on maternal toxicity (reduced body weight gain) and foetal defects at the next higher dose.

 

Butroxydim

0.005

0.5

18 January 1993

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on organ weight changes and increased alkaline phosphatase levels at the next higher dose.

 

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C

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Cadusafos

0.00001

0.001

13 August 1992

1-year capsule fed dog study; a NOAEL of 0.001 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Captan

0.1

10

5 February 1997

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced maternal body weight and increased skeletal variations in foetuses at the next higher dose.

 

Carbaryl

0.008

16 [LOAEL]

13 December 2002

2-year dietary mouse study; based on vascular tumour formation at the LOAEL of 16 mg/kg bw/d.

 

Carbendazim

0.03

2.5

9 May 1979

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased plasma levels of cholesterol, BUN, protein, ALT with hepatic cirrhosis, swollen, vacuolated hepatocytes and hepatitis at the next higher dose.

 

Carbofuran

0.003

0.33

10 September 1987

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.33 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced ChE activity in the brain, testicular degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, lung inflammation, hepatic sinusoid dilatation and hyperplasia of the thyroid at the next higher dose.

 

Carbosulfan

0.01

1

17 January 1997

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical signs, iris atrophy and plasma ChE inhibition at the next higher dose.

 

Carboxin

0.08

8.5

18 February 1987

18-month dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 8.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on liver centrilobular hypertrophy at the next higher dose.

 

Carfentrazone ethyl

0.03

3

3 August 1998

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on red fluorescence seen in the liver at the next higher dose.

 

Carprofen

0.005

1

4 September 1997

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on intestinal ulceration and peritonitis at the next higher dose.

 

Cefapirin

0.02

20 [LOAEL]

5 September 1997

13-week dietary dog study; based on vomiting and increased weight gain at the LOAEL of 20 mg/kg bw/d.

Large uncertainty (safety) factor applied due to incomplete database; absence of chronic studies and the absence of a NOAEL.

Ceftiofur sodium

0.03

30

18 January 1993

3-month oral (gelatin capsule) dog study; a NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical signs, reduction in blood platelet counts (thrombocytopenia) and low RBC (mild anaemia) at the next higher dose.

Large uncertainty (safety) factor applied due to incomplete database; absence of chronic toxicity studies.

Cefuroxime sodium

0.4

400

12 August 1996

27-week gavage dog study; a NOAEL of 400 mg/kg bw/d was based on anaemia, reduced plasma cholesterol, and increased triglycerides at the next higher dose.

 

Cephalexin

0.01

(M)

22 November 2000

 

The limited toxicology data were not sufficient to allow establishment of a toxicological ADI. A microbiological ADI of 0.01 mg/kg bw/d for cephalexin based on the use of the JECFA formula was established.

Cephalonium

0.02

39

11 July 1996

13-week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 39 mg/kg bw/d was based on elevated kidney weights at the next higher dose.

Large uncertainty (safety) factor applied due to incomplete database; absence of chronic and reproduction toxicity studies.

Cetrimide

0.01

25 [LOAEL]

10 June 2008

21-day dietary rat study; based on reduced body weight gain and food consumption at the LOAEL of 25 mg/kg bw/d (EMEA, 1996).

 

Chlorantraniliprole

1.6

158

9 May 2008

2-year dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 158 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weights and increased eosinophilic foci of cellular alteration accompanied by hepatocellular hypertrophy at the next higher dose.

 

Chlordane

0.0005 (TDI)

JMPR'94

21 October 2003

 

Tolerable daily intake. Conventional ADI not maintained as chlordane is no longer used in agricultural practice. A TDI is maintained to enable potential dietary exposure assessments to be undertaken.

Chlorfenapyr

0.02

2.1

22 August 1995

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 2.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on elevated creatinine levels at the next higher dose.

 

Chlorfenvinphos

0.0005

0.05

29 October 1998

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.05 mg/kg bw/d was based on plasma ChE inhibition at the next higher dose. 2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 0.05 mg/kg bw/d was based on plasma and brain ChE inhibition at the next higher dose.

 

Chlorfluazuron

0.005

0.56

12 November 1987

78-week dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.56 mg/kg bw/d was based on elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations at the next higher dose.

 

Chlorhexidine

0.2

25

14 February 1985

 

 

Chloridazon

0.04

4.1

2 December 1988

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 4.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on muscular atrophy in the scapula and thigh and increased thyroid weight at the next higher dose.

 

Chlormequat

0.07

7.5

30 August 1991

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 7.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on excessive salivation and muscle weakness at the next higher dose.

 

Chloropicrin

0.001

0.1

16 January 2014

1-year oral (gelatin capsule) dog study; a NOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on vomiting (emesis) at the next higher dose. 2-year gavage rat study; a NOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on hyperkeratosis in the nonglandular stomach and reduced body weight and body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Chlorothalonil

0.01

1.5

14 February 1991

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on renal tubular epithelial vacuolisation at the next higher dose.

 

Chlorpropham

0.05

5

16 July 1996

60-week dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on altered thyroid function at the next higher dose.

 

Chlorpyrifos

0.003

0.03 (H)

17 December 1998

28-day human study; a NOAEL of 0.03 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Chlorpyrifos-methyl

0.01

0.1 (H)

10 February 1988

4-week human oral study; a NOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on an absence of any adverse effects at the highest tested dose.

 

Chlorsulfuron

0.05

5

5 August 1982

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on bodyweight loss and reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Chlortetracycline

0.003

0.03(H)

15 May 1995

7-day human oral study; a NOAEL of 0.03 mg/kg bw/d was based on the elimination of oxytetracycline susceptible strains of intestinal microflora at the next higher dose.

The NOAEL of oxytetracycline has been applied to chlortetracycline due to similarities in structure and microbiological potency.

Chlorthal-dimethyl

0.01

1

29 April 1994

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on dose-related decreases in thyroxin (T4) and increases in TSH levels, increases in thyroid/parathyroid weight, and gross and histopathological abnormalities in the lungs, liver, thyroid, eye and kidney at the next higher dose.

 

Cinmethylin

0.08

8

31 December 2019

Up to 1 year dog studies; overall NOAEL of 8 mg/kg bw/d was based on adverse effects in the liver at the next higher dose. Supported by a 2 year rat study with a NOAEL of 9 mg/kg bw/day, based on adverse effects on bodyweight, liver, nasal cavity, thyroid glands, and reproductive organs at the next higher dose.

 

Clavulanic acid

0.01

10

8 March 1995

6-month gavage dog study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on gastric irritation resulting in hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the stomach mucosa at the next higher dose.

Large uncertainty (safety) factor applied due to incomplete database; no chronic studies.

Clethodim

0.01

1

20 June 1991

1-year capsule fed dog study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced serum glucose concentrations, increased platelet and leukocyte counts and increased liver weight at the next higher dose.

 

Clitoria ternatea

10

1000

23 November 2015

3-month dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1000 mg/kg bw/d was based on an absence of any adverse effects at the highest tested dose.

 

Clodinafop-propargyl

0.004

0.37

28 April 1994

3-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.37 mg/kg bw/d was based on skin lesions and disturbances of the serum protein electrophoretic pattern at the next higher dose.

 

Clofentezine

0.02

2

11 September 1986

27-month dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on centrilobular hepatocyte enlargement at the next higher dose.

 

Clomazone

0.1

14

19 December 1997

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 14 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased absolute and relative liver weights at the next higher dose.

 

Cloprostenol

0.0005

0.05

11 November 1975

 

 

d-Cloprostenol

0.000075

0.00015

21 February 2017

3-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 0.00015 mg/kg bw/d (corresponding to 7.5 µg/kg bw/day d-Cloprostenol) was based on a reduction in neonatal viability attributed to prematurity of the offspring at the next higher dose.

 

Clopyralid

0.5

50

12 November 1982

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 50 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain at next higher dose.

 

Cloquintocet-mexyl

0.04

4.3

28 April 1994

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 4.3 mg/kg bw/d was based on thyroid follicular epithelium hyperplasia at the next higher dose.

 

Cloquintocet acid

0.028

4.3

5 July 2016

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 4.3 mg/kg bw/d for cloquictocet mexyl was based on thyroid follicular epithelium hyperplasia at the next higher dose. The ADI was adjusted based on molecular weight differences from cloquintocet-mexyl.

 

Clorsulon

0.02

2

11 June 1993

Single-gen reproduction gavage rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased gestation length at the next higher dose.

 

Closantel

0.025

2.5

12 November 1981

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/day was based on increased incidence of sperm granulomas in the epididymes of male rats at the next higher dose.

 

Clothianidin

0.05

9.7 [LOAEL]

1 August 2003

2-year dietary rat study; based on an increased incidence of interstitial hyperplasia in the ovaries at a LOAEL of 9.7 mg/kg bw/d.

 

Cloxacillin

0.2

500

28 June 2001

12-week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 500 mg/kg bw/d was based on absence of any observed adverse effects at the highest tested dose.

Large uncertainty (safety) factor due to limited toxicological data.

Codling Moth Granulosis Virus

 

 

22 November 2011

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Copper

0.2

 

16 June 2005

 

This ADI is based on the upper safe limit for adults of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d recommended by FSANZ as a provisional maximum tolerable daily intake. Therefore there is no NOAEL, LOAEL or safety factor.

Copper pyrithione

0.0005

0.5

2 October 2009

Based on a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d in a 2 year rat chronic study with pyrithione sodium and using a 100-fold safety factor.

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on nerve degeneration and muscle atrophy at the next higher dose.

Coumaphos

0.0005

0.05

7 December 1971

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.05 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Coumatetralyl

0.000003 (TDI)

0.0068

15 September 2000

16-week dietary rat study; NOAEL of 0.0068 mg/kg bw/d was based on significantly increased blood clotting time and haemorrhage at the next higher dose.

Tolerable daily intake. An ADI was not established as coumatetralyl residues are not expected to be present in the food supply. A TDI is maintained to serve as a guideline with which potential dietary exposure assessments can be undertaken in the event of unintentional presence.

Cyanamide

0.002

0.2

14 August 1992

1-year gavage dog study; a NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced RBC MCV, WBC count and elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations at the next higher dose.

 

Cyanazine

0.002

0.2

11 September 1986

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Cyantraniliprole

0.01

1

21 January 2013

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg/bw/d was based on increased liver weight and a reduced cholesterol concentration at the next higher dose.

 

Cyazofamid

1.2

124

6 June 2013

18-month carcinogenicity mouse study; a NOAEL of 124 mg/kg/bw/d was based on increased indicence of hematocysts in the ovaries at the next higher dose.

 

Cyclanilide

0.01

2.5

17 April 1998

2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on renal tubular mineralisation at the next higher dose.

 

Cyclaniliprole

0.04

4

29 February 2016

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1.29 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weights (absolute/relative) and increased ALP at the next higher dose.

 

Cycloxydim

0.06

6.4

17 May 1990

2-year drinking water rat study; a NOAEL of 6.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased thymus weight at the next higher dose.

 

Cyflufenamid

0.04

4.14

29 May 2012

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 4.14 mg/kg bw/d was based on elevated alkaline phosphatase levels at the next higher dose.

 

β-Cyfluthrin

0.01

1.5

5 December 1990

13-week dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on vomiting, diarrhoea and effects on motor function at the next higher dose.

 

Cyfluthrin

0.02

2.5

14 February 1985

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Cyhalofop-butyl

0.002

0.2

28 January 2005

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased incidence of spots in the livers at the next higher dose.

 

Gamma-Cyhalothrin

 

 

 

See γ-Cyhalothrin

 

α-Cypermethrin

0.05

4.7

11 March 1994

13-week dog study; a NOAEL of 4.7 mg/kg bw/d was based on ataxia, body tremors, agitation and abnormal gait at the next higher dose.

 

β-Cypermethrin

0.05

5

19 March 2002

2-year dietary rat study; based on a NOAEL for cypermethrin.

The 2-year rat study used for establishing the cypermethrin ADI was considered appropriate to use for the beta-cypermethrin ADI as all the isomers contained in beta-cypermethrin are contained in cypermethrin.

ζ-Cypermethrin

0.07

7

23 May 1996

2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 7 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain and feed consumption in females during the premating and lactation periods at the next higher dose. Pups also displayed reduced bodyweight gain and clinical signs at the next higher dose.

 

Cypermethrin

0.05

5

10 February 1988

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weights and some haematological and biochemical changes observed at the next higher dose.

 

γ-Cyhalothrin

0.0005

0.5

12 August 2003

Developmental rat study; a maternal NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain and clinical signs among dams at the next higher dose.

 

λ-Cyhalothrin

0.001

0.1

5 December 1990

1-year capsule fed dog study; a NOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on neurotoxic effects (convulsions, ataxia) at the next higher dose.

 

Cyphenothrin

0.03

3

30 August 1991

13 and 52 week dietary dog studies; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg/d was based on tremor, lethargy, emesis and reddening or paleness of the oral mucosa at the next higher dose.

 

Cyproconazole

0.01

1

22 February 1990

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weights, liver-related clinical chemistry parameters and histopathological findings at the next higher dose.

 

Cyprodinil

0.03

2.7

19 August 1994

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2.7 mg/kg bw/d was based on an increased incidence of cystic degeneration/spongiosis hepatis in the liver at higher doses.

 

Cyromazine

0.02

1.8

8 April 1998

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.8 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

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D

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Daminozide

0.7

75

11 September 1986

 

 

Dazomet

0.0005

0.5 [LOAEL]

27 November 1996

2-year dietary rat study; based on histopathological lesions in liver and kidney at the LOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d.

 

DDT

0.002 (TDI)

0.25

21 October 2003

 

Tolerable daily intake. Conventional ADI not maintained as DDT is no longer used in agricultural practice. A TDI is maintained to enable potential dietary exposure assessments to be undertaken.

Decoquinate

0.075

15

4 June 2013

12-week dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 15 mg/kg bw/d was based on subdued behaviour at the next higher dose.

 

Deltamethrin

0.01

1

6 November 1980

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on an absence of any adverse effects at the highest tested dose.

 

Derquantel

0.0005

0.1 [LOAEL]

27 May 2011

3-month capsule fed dog study; based on clinical signs (protruding nictitating membranes, dilated pupils, eye redness and decreased indirect pupillary light response) at the LOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw/d.

 

Dexamethasone

0.000015

0.0015

10 October 2016

7-day gavage rat study; a NOAEL of 0.0015 mg/kg bw/d was based on the induction of tyrosine aminotransferase activity in the liver at the next higher dose.

Long history of safe use in human medicine (JECFA-08).

Diafenthiuron

0.003

0.3

5 January 1993

12-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.3 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose. This NOAEL was supported by a 2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.32 mg/kg bw/d was based on testicular enlargement at the next higher dose.

 

Diazinon

0.001

0.02 (H)

29 April 1999

37-43 day human study; a NOAEL of 0.02 mg/kg bw/d was based on plasma ChE inhibition at the next higher dose.

 

Dicamba

0.03

3

20 June 1991

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced maternal body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Dichlobenil

0.01

1.25

14 August 1992

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1.25 mg/kg bw/d was based on liver toxicity (increased liver weight, liver enzymes, cholesterol and triglycerides) and histopathological changes in the liver at the next higher dose.

See 2,6-dichlobenzamide (BAM)—major plant metabolite.

Dichlofluanid

0.03

2.7

29 May 1986

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 2.7 mg/kg/d was based on hypertrophy in the liver at the next higher dose.

 

2,6-Dichlorobenzamide (BAM)

0.02

2

26 November 2015

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight, increased incidences of eosinophilic and basophilic foci in the livers and fat deposition and cellular degeneration in the liver at the next higher dose.

An important plant metabolite common to dichlobenil and fluopicolide.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)

0.01

1

23 June 2006

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on abnormal renal morphology at the next higher dose.

 

2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB)

0.004

1.9

24 May 1995

1-year dietary dog study; a LOAEL of 1.9 mg/kg bw/d was based on changes in clinical chemistry (elevated urea, creatinine and ALT) and histopathological lesions (pigmented tubular cells) in the kidney.

 

Dichlorprop

0.03

3

9 July 1998

13-week dog dietary study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on changes in clinical chemistry and kidney discolouration at the next higher dose.

 

2,2-Dichloropropionic acid (2,2-DPA)

0.2

15

17 November 1989

 

 

Dichlorprop-P

0.03

6

2 November 2006

18-month dietary mouse study, a NOAEL of 6 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased incidence of chronic nephropathy observed at the next higher dose.

 

Dichlorvos

0.001

0.014 (H)

6 April 2004

28-day human study; a NOAEL of 0.014 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Diclofop-methyl

0.002

0.25

6 February 1986

2-year dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 0.25 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased organs weights and serum alkaline phosphatase levels at the next higher dose.

 

Dicofol

0.001

0.12

5 December 1990

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.12 mg/kg bw/d was based on pituitary cysts at the next higher dose.

 

Dicyclanil

0.007

0.7

14 October 2005

12-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.71 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased plasma cholesterol levels at the next higher dose.

 

Dieldrin

0.0001 (TDI)

JMPR'94

21 October 2003

 

Tolerable daily intake. Conventional ADI not maintained as dieldrin is no longer used in agricultural practice. A TDI is maintained to enable potential dietary exposure assessments to be undertaken.

Difenoconazole

0.01

1

5 December 1990

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain, hepatocyte hypertrophy and decreased platelet count the next higher dose.

 

Difethialone

0.0000006 (TDI)

0.00125

19 July 1993

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 0.00125 mg/kg/d based on the incidence of incompletely ossified sternebra at the next higher dose.

Tolerable daily intake. An ADI was not established as difethialone residues are not expected to be present in the food supply. A TDI is maintained to serve as a guideline with which potential dietary exposure assessments to be undertaken in the event of unintentional presence.

Diflubenzuron

0.02

2

19 February 1985

2-year rat and 1-year dog dietary studies; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg/d based on increased pigmentation in macrophages and Kupffer cells of the liver at the next higher dose.

 

Diflufenican

0.2

16.3

11 August 1988

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 16.3 mg/kg bw/d based on a reduction in body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Dimethenamid-P

0.03

5 [LOAEL]

12 August 2003

2-year dietary rat study; based on an increased incidence of parathyroid hyperplasia at the lowest tested dose (LOAEL) of 5.1 mg/kg bw/d.

 

Dimethoate

0.001

0.1

31 May 2012

Developmental neurotoxicity rat study; a NOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased pup mortality at the next higher dose.

 

Dimethomorph

0.06

6

12 July 1996

2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 6 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced female weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Dinoprost

0.0005

1

17 March 1976

 

 

Dinotefuran

0.2

22

10 August 2015

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 22 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Diphenylamine

0.08

7.5

21 April 2017

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 7.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on anaemia (reduced RBC, Hb and PCV) at the next higher dose.

(JMPR-98).

Diquat

0.002

0.2

28 May 2002

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on lenticular cataract formation at the next higher dose.

 

Disodium methylarsonate (DSMA)

0.0005

0.5

10 November 1994

 

 

Dithianon

0.007

0.66

2 February 1993

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.66 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight, food intake and increased liver and kidney weights at the next higher dose.

 

Dithiopyr

0.005

0.5

13 August 1992

1-year oral (gelatin capsule) dog study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on single cell necrosis of hepatocytes, liver fibrosis, bile duct proliferation and focal leucocyte infiltration of the liver at the next higher dose.

 

Diuron

0.007

0.7

4 February 2005

In a follow-up 6-month study to a 2-year rat dietary study; a NOAEL of 0.7 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced Hb and increased reticulocyte counts at the next higher dose. This NOAEL was supported by a 2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL 0.6 mg/kg bw/d was based on abnormal haemoglobin spectral pigments at higher doses.

 

Dodine

0.1

10

26 November 2002

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on diarrhoea, reduced food intake and body weight loss at the next higher dose.

 

Doramectin

0.002

0.1

31 January 2018

3-month gavage dog study; a NOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on pupil dilation (mydriasis) exhibited at the next higher dose (a 50-fold UF was applied based on chemical specific adjustment factors).

 

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E

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Emamectin

0.002

0.25

26 February 1999

1-year gavage dog study; a NOAEL of 0.25 mg/kg bw/d was based on neurotoxicity (tremors, stiffness in hind legs) and peripheral nerve degeneration and muscle degeneration at the next higher dose. 2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.25 mg/kg bw/d was based on elevated serum triglyceride and bilirubin levels at the next higher dose.

 

Endothal

0.03

3.75

5 December 1990

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 3.75 mg/kg bw/d was based on liver lesions (necrosis and hyperplasia) at the next higher dose.

 

Endrin

0.0002 (TDI)

JMPR'94

21 October 2003

 

Tolerable daily intake. A conventional ADI not maintained as endrin is no longer used in agricultural practice. A TDI is maintained to enable potential dietary exposure assessments to be undertaken.

Enterococcus faecium

 

 

4 September 2002

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Epoxiconazole

0.01

1

16 April 2002

1-year dietary dog study; based on the absence of any treatment related effects at the highest tested dose of 1.1 mg/kg bw/d. 78-week dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 0.81 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain and increased liver weight at the higher dose (36 mg/kg bw/d).

 

Eprinomectin

0.02

1

31 January 2018

1-year gavage dog study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on pupil dilation (mydriasis) and focal neuronal degeneration in the brain at the next higher dose (a 50-fold UF was applied based on chemical specific adjustment factors).

 

Esbiothrin

0.03

3

15 September 1993

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased thyroid weight at the next higher dose.

 

Esfenvalerate

0.008

7.5

17 March 1993

13-week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 7.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on parenchymal cell hypertrophy in parotid salivary gland at the next higher dose.

 

Ethametsulfuron-methyl

0.2

21

17 January 2001

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 21 mg/kg bw/d was based on enlarged mammary glands in females and reduced serum sodium levels at the next higher dose.

 

Ethephon

0.02

0.17(H)

18 February 1987

3-week human study; a NOAEL of 0.17 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of plasma ChE levels at the next higher dose.

 

Ethion

0.001

0.1

10 June 1987

2-year dietary rat study and 3-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Ethofumesate

0.3

30

11 November 1976

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased embryo loss at the next higher dose.

 

Ethoxyquin

0.001

2.5 [LOAEL]

21 February 2000

2-gen reproduction dog study; a LOAEL based on clinical signs (salivation and dehydration) and histological changes in the liver at the next higher dose.

ADI is based on JMPR evaluation (1998) but with the application of additional uncertainty factors due to inadequate data and the absence of a NOAEL in the dog study. ADI includes three residues (MEQ, DHMEQ and DHEQ).

Ethoxysulfuron

0.06

6.2

12 May 2004

3-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 6.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased thyroid weight in association with follicular hyperplasia at the next higher dose.

 

Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC)

0.09

9

12 January 1995

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 9 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical and pathological effects indicative of neuromuscular toxicity at the next higher dose.

 

Ethyl formate

 

 

26 November 2003

 

No residues expected in commodities above the natural formate level of 0.6 mg/kg. Any residues above this level could be considered against a group ADI for formic acid (3 mg/kg bw/d).

Etofenprox

0.03

3.1

4 December 2017

108-week dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 3.1 mg/kg bw/d for renal toxicity (increased incidence of dilated and basophilic renal tubules). Supported by 2-year rat dietary study; a NOAEL of 3.7 mg/kg bw/d for liver histopathology (increase in foci or areas of eosinophilic hepatocytes in males and vacuolated hepatocytes in females) JMPR 2011, EFSA 2009).

 

Etoxazole

0.04

4

17 December 2003

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 4 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weights at the next higher dose. 1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 4.6 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weights and an increased incidence of hepatocellular swelling at the next higher dose.

 

Etridiazole

0.03

3

30 August 1991

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain and Increased serum alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and blood clotting time at the next higher dose.

 

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F

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Febantel

0.02

2

15 July 1996

2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on hepatocellular hypertrophy in the liver at the next higher dose.

 

Fenamiphos

0.0001

0.014

7 November 2005

 2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.014 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Fenbendazole

0.05

5

14 February 1991

123-125 week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on liver lesions (centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolation, focal bile duct proliferation and biliary cyst formation) at the next higher dose.

 

Fenbuconazole

0.006

0.6

2003

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.6 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gains and increased incidences of hepatocyte pigment at the next higher dose. 2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 0.6 mg/kg bw/d was based on increase in stillborn pups and decrease in delivered pups, live pups/litter, viability during lactation and pup body weights at the next higher dose.

 

Fenbutatin-oxide

0.01

1

10 September 1987

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on foetotoxicity and maternotoxicity at the next higher dose.

 

Fenhexamid

0.2

17.4

16 December 1998

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 17.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased adrenal weight, intracytoplasmic vacuoles in the adrenal cortex, and anaemia (incl. Heinz bodies) at the next higher dose.

 

Fenitrothion

0.002

0.2

6 November 1997

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on a reduction in plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl

0.004

0.4

14 February 1991

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Fenoxycarb

0.05

5

29 October 1998

18-month dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight, increased incidence of pulmonary tumours and lower body weight at the next higher dose.

 

Fenpyrazamine

0.1

12.7

11 May 2015

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 12.7 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight and hepatocellular hypertrophy at the next higher dose.

 

Fenpyroximate

0.005

0.5

24 May 1993

1-year capsule fed dog study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on emesis at the next higher dose.

 

Fenvalerate

0.02

1.7

10 June 1987

3-gen reproduction rat study, a NOAEL of 1.7 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight at the next higher dose.

Based on JMPR (2012) report.

Fipronil

0.0002

0.02

27 June 1994

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.02 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical signs of neurotoxicity at the next higher dose.

This is a group ADI which includes fipronil, desulfinyl fipronil, fipronil suphide and fipronil sulphone.

Flamprop-M-methyl

0.001

0.125

29 August 1991

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.125 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight and hypertrophy of the endoplasmic reticulum at the next higher dose.

 

Flavophospholipol

 

 

 

 

See: Bambermycin

Flazasulfuron

0.013

1.3

26 September 2011

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.3 mg/kg bw/d was based on chronic nephropathy observed at the next higher dose.

 

Flocoumafen

0.000001

0.0014

20 September 1995

3-month dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.0014 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased levels of serum cholesterol at the next higher dose.

 

Flonicamid

0.025

2.5

7 June 2012

Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on abnormal lung lobation and absent kidney and ureter in foetuses at the next higher dose.

 

Florasulam

0.05

5

20 December 2007

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on hypertrophy of collecting duct epithelial cells of the kidney at the next higher dose.

 

Florfenicol

0.001

1

3 August 2001

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight and cystic epithelial hyperplasia of the gall bladder at the next higher dose.

 

Florpyrauxifen-benzyl

Not specified

 

8 August 2017

 

(See item 4 under Notes)

Fluazifop-butyl

0.004

0.4

5 August 1982

2- and 3-gen reproduction rat studies; an overall NOAEL of 0.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on decreased bodyweight and organ weight changes at the next higher dose.

Note: ADI is expressed as fluazifop acid. ADI can be applied to the metabolites; despyridinyl acid, CF3-pyridone and hydroxy fluazifop acid.

Fluazifop-P-butyl

 

 

 

 

See fluazifop-butyl

Fluazinam

0.004

0.4

18 June 1993

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on histopathological lesions in the liver (centrilolobular sinusoidal dilatation) and pancreas (exocrine atrophy) at the next higher dose.

 

Fluazuron

0.04

4.27

14 September 1993

2-year dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 4.27 mg/kg bw/d was based on lenticular cataracts at the next higher dose.

 

Flubendazole

0.013

2.5

15 March 2019

3 month oral (capsule) dog study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on atrophic changes in the prostate at the next higher dose.

Total uncertainty factor used was 200.

Flubendiamide

0.01

1

14 December 2007

1-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on hepatoxicity and microcytic anaemia at the next higher dose.

 

Fludioxonil

0.03

3.1

23 April 1997

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 3.7 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical signs, discoloured urine and reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Fluensulfone

0.015

1.5

12 June 2014

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Flufenoxuron

0.02

2.5

21 January 1997

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on mild anaemia (reduction in RBC and MCHC) and liver histopathology at the next higher dose.

 

Flugestone acetate

0.0001

0.2

19 February 1981

3-month dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Flumethrin

0.003

0.31

18 October 2001

2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 0.31 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical signs, reduced food consumption and reduced body weight gain (parental effects) and reduced birth weight, pup survival and weight gain (reproductive effects) at the next higher dose.

 

Flumetsulam

1

100

14 February 1992

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 100 mg/kg bw/d was based on histopathological lesions in the kidneys (distention and atrophy of the tubules and papillae) at the highest tested dose.

 

Flumiclorac pentyl

0.3

32

8 December 2004

18-month dietary mouse study, a NOAEL of 32 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced RBC, Hb, Hct and hepatocellular hypertrophy in the liver at the next higher dose.

 

Flumioxazin

0.003

3

12 December 2002

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased incidence of cardiovascular abnormalities at the next higher dose.

 

Flunixin meglumine

0.006

0.6

29 September 2000

2-year mouse study; a NOAEL of 0.6 mg/kg bw/d was based on extramedullary haematopoiesis in the liver and kidney at the next higher dose.

 

Fluometuron

0.02

2

16 February 1989

 

 

Fluopicolide

0.08

7.9

26 November 2015

18-month dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 7.9 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weights, masses and nodules in the liver, and hepatocellular hypertrophy at the next higher dose. Supported by 2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 8.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased centrilobular hypertrophy of the liver and increased kidney weights and lesions (cortical tubule cell basophilia, hyaline droplets and granular and hyaline casts) at the next higher dose.

See 2,6-dichlobenzamide (BAM) -major plant metabolite.

Fluopyram

0.01

1.2

1 May 2015

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.2 mg/kg/bw/d was based on liver lesions (hepatocellular hypertrophy and eosinophilic foci) at the next higher dose.

 

Flupropanate

0.002

5

10 September 1987

3-month dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight at the next higher dose.

 

Flupyradifurone

0.08

7.8

11 August 2015

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 7.8 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweights and skeletal muscle myofiber degeneration at the next higher dose. Supported by the 2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 7.7 mg/kg bw/d was based on body weight loss at the next higher dose.

 

Fluquinconazole

0.005

0.5

2 July 1997

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on deaths, increased food and water consumption, reduced body weight gain and increased relative organ weights at the next higher dose. 1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical signs at the next higher dose.

 

Fluralaner

0.02

2

31 May 2018

90-day and 52-week capsule-fed dog studies; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on a reduction in cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid levels observed at the next higher dose.

 

Fluroxypyr

0.2

20

6 February 1986

13-week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased serum ALT and AP, reduced thyroid and adrenal weights, and histopathological effects in the kidneys at the next higher dose.

 

Flutolanil

0.02

2

16 October 2001

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on an increased albumin:globulin ratio in males, and reduced bilirubin and dilation of the sinusoid in the liver in females at the next higher dose.

 

Flutriafol

0.01

1

20 June 1991

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on fatty changes and histopathological lesions (centrilobular hypertrophy) in the liver at the next higher dose.

 

tau-Fluvalinate

0.005

0.5

5 November 1986

2-year gavage rat study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Fluxapyroxad

0.02

2.1

30 January 2012

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight at the next higher dose.

 

Forchlorfenuron

0.07

7

15 April 2005

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 7 mg/kg bw/d was based on tubular dilatation and inflammation in the kidneys at the next higher dose.

 

Fosetyl aluminium

1

103

18 February 1987

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 103 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

 

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G

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Gentamicin

0.05

5

6 May 1983

1-year IM (5d/wk) rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on kidney lesions and vestibular damage at the next higher dose.

 

Gibberellic acid

5

550

13 January 1993

3-month dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 550 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight at the next higher dose.

 

Glufosinate

0.007

0.67

11 August 1988

 

 

Glufosinate ammonium

0.02

2.1

28 August 2001

130-week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on decreased glutathione levels in the liver and blood at the next higher dose.

 

Glyphosate

0.3

30

14 February 1985

3-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bw/d was based on an absence of any adverse effects at the highest tested dose.

 

Guazatine

0.006

0.625

25 March 1997

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.625 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain and food consumption at the next higher dose.

 

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H

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Halauxifen-methyl

0.1

10

17 September 2014

3-month dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on induction of hepatic Cyp1a1 activity (aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway), increased liver weights and cholesterol and increased hepatocellular vacuolation at the next higher dose.

 

Halofuginone

0.0003

0.025

16 June 2006

Development rabbit study; a NOAEL of 0.025 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain and food consumption, mortality and abortions at the next higher dose.

 

Halosulfuron-methyl

0.01

1

19 November 1993

1-year capsule fed dog study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Haloxyfop

0.0003

0.03

12 November 1987

2-year dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 0.03 mg/kg bw/d was based on hepatocellular hypertrophy causing an increased incidence of adenomas and carcinomas at the next higher dose.

 

Haloxyfop-P (or Haloxyfop-R)

 

 

 

 

Use haloxyfop ADI.

Heptachlor

0.0005 (TDI)

JMPR'94

21 October 2003

 

Tolerable daily intake. A conventional ADI not maintained as heptachlor is no longer used in agricultural practice. A TDI is maintained to enable potential dietary exposure assessments to be undertaken.

Hexaconazole

0.005

0.5

17 May 1990

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on cortical vacuolation in the adrenal glands at the next higher dose.

 

Hexaflumuron

0.02

2

31 August 2001

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on Heinz bodies (intracellular inclusions of denatured haemoglobin) in RBC and methaemoglobin (heme group in RBC contains iron in the ferric (Fe3+) state and not the usual ferrous (Fe2+) state) formation at the next higher dose.

 

Hexazinone

0.1

10

12 November 1987

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Hexythiazox

0.03

3

29 May 1986

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight and adrenocortical hypertrophy at the next higher dose.

 

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I

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Imazalil

0.03

2.5

24 July 1997

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weights, and increased relative liver weights, serum AP and GGT levels at the next higher dose.

 

Imazamox

2.8

282

11 March 1999

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 282 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased plasma creatine phosphokinase activity at the next higher dose.

 

Imazapic

0.3

137

17 May 1996

1-year dietary dog study; a LOAEL of 137 mg/kg bw/d was based on mild anaemia (reduced Hct, Hb and RBC levels) at the lowest tested dose.

 

Imazapyr

2.5

250

2 June 1998

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 250 mg/kg bw/d was based on the absence of signs of toxicity at the highest tested dose.

 

Imazethapyr

2.8

276

22 February 1990

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 276 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Imidacloprid

0.06

6

8 February 1993

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 6 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased mineralisation in the colloid of thyroid follicles at the next higher dose.

 

Imidocarb

0.05

5

16 August 1979

3-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on fatty infiltration and lesions (focal hepatitis, hepatocyte vacuolation) of the liver at the next higher dose.

 

Imiprothrin

0.05

5

30 September 1996

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased salivation, diarrhoea, and incidence and severity of centrilobular hepatocytes, Kupffer cell pigmentation, and perivascular inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver at the next higher dose.

 

Indoxacarb + R-Enantiomer

(Total S and R-Enantiomers)

0.01

1

30 August 2018

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on RBC damage and a secondary increase in haematopoiesis in the spleen and liver at the next higher dose. Supported by 2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 1.3 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight and food consumption in dams at the next higher dose.

 

Iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium

0.03

3

29 September 2000

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Ioxynil

0.004

0.04 (H)

18 February 1987

Based on human exposure data for iodide toxicity. A chronic iodide exposure in excess of 0.042 mg/kg bw/d is associated with goitre induction (Wolf, 1969).

 

Ipconazole

0.015

1.5

18 January 2010

1-year oral (gelatin capsule) dog study; a NOAEL of 1.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased incidence and severity of bile duct proliferation and increased incidence in centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy at the next higher dose.

 

Iprodione

0.04

4

16 June 1986

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 4 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased adrenal and liver weight, increased AP and ALT and pathological changes in the adrenals and liver at the next higher dose.

 

Isoeugenol

0.2

500

20 August 1996

16-week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 500 mg/kg bw/d was based on the absence of signs of toxicity at the highest tested dose.

Large uncertainty (safety) factor due to limited toxicological data.

Isofetamid

0.05

5

9 March 2017

An overall NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d in the dietary 90-day and 1-year dog toxicity studies was based on decreased albumin, increased ALP, GGPT and liver weight with hepatocellular hypertrophy at the next higher dose.

 

Isopyrazam

0.06

5.5

24 May 2016

2-year dietary rat study; NOAEL of 5.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain, foci of eosinophilic hepatocytes and clinical chemistry changes (triglycerides, bilirubin) at the next higher dose.

 

Isoxaben

0.05

5

9 August 1995

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on renal pathology at the next higher dose.

 

Isoxaflutole

0.02

2

6 May 1997

2-year rat dietary study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on many histopathological changes in the liver, nerves, skeletal muscle, and cornea of the eye at the next higher dose. Supported by a 2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d for maternal and pup toxicity was based on increased liver weight, liver hypertrophy, vacuolation, reduced pup weight and viability.

 

Ivermectin

0.01

0.5

31 January 2018

14-week gavage dog study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on pupil dilation (mydriasis) at the next higher dose (a 50-fold UF was applied based on chemical specific adjustment factors).

 

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J

No results.

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K

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Ketoprofen

0.001

0.1

8 December 2000

Acute pharmacological rabbit study; a NOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of platelet aggregation at the next higher dose.

 

Kitasamycin

0.5

1000

22 March 1979

 

 

Kresoxim-methyl

0.4

36

25 June 1999

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 36 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight, increased liver weight, elevated enzyme activity and liver changes at the next higher dose.

 

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L

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Lactobacillus acidophilus

 

 

4 September 2002

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Lactobacillus brevis

 

 

4 September 2002

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Lactobacillus casei

 

 

4 September 2002

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Lactobacillus plantarum

 

 

4 September 2002

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Lambda-Cyhalothrin

 

 

 

See λ-Cyhalothrin

 

Lasalocid

0.005

0.5

18 April 2019

Developmental toxicity study in rabbits; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/day with decreased litter weights, increased incidence of forelimb flexure and minor skeletal abnormalities /variants from 1 mg/kg bw/d. a multi-generation rat reproductive toxicity study NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d (reduced mean numbers of corpora lutea and implantation resulting in decreased implantation efficiency from 1.75 mg/kg bw/d).

 

Levamisole

0.003

6

14 November 1974

3-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 6 mg/kg bw/d was based on the absence of any adverse effects observed at the highest tested dose.

 

Lignocaine

0.009

8.6 [LOAEL]

10 June 2008

An effective human therapeutic dose is 3 mg/kg bw. Assuming a 35% bioavailability via the oral route, a corresponding oral dose can be estimated to be 3/0.35 = 8.6 mg/kg bw.

 

Lincomycin

1

100

5 August 1983

6-month capsule fed dog study; a NOAEL of 100 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased adrenal weight and histopathological changes (lymphocytic infiltration) in the thyroid at the highest tested dose.

 

Linuron

0.01

1.25

11 September 1986

20-month dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.25 mg/kg bw/d was based on anaemia with a corresponding increase in reticulocytes at the next higher dose.

 

Lufenuron

0.02

2.1

4 March 1994

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on seizures, lung and gastrointestinal lesions at the next higher dose. 18-month dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 2.1 mg/kg bw/d based on deaths and clinical signs at the next higher dose.

 

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M

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Maduramicin

0.001

0.1

5 November 1986

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on histopathological lesions (myocyte vacuolation) in skeletal muscle at the next higher dose.

 

Maldison

0.02

2

12 April 2005

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of RBC ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Maleic hydrazide

5

571

5 January 1993

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 571 mg/kg bw/d was based on an absence of any adverse effects at the highest tested dose.

 

Mancozeb

0.006

0.6

27 November 1992

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.6 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced iodine uptake at the next higher dose.

 

Mandestrobin

0.2

19.2

30 March 2016

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 19.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on dark liver, centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy and pigmented hepatocytes at the next higher dose.

 

Mandipropamid

0.05

5

9 April 2010

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on changes in clinical chemistry, increased liver weight and pigment in hepatocytes at the next higher dose.

 

MCPA

0.01

1.1

28 April 1994

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at the next higher dose.

ADI is for the sum of MCPA, its salts and esters, expressed as MCPA acid equivalents.

MCPB

0.01

1.1

12 May 1994

 

Same study and endpoint as for MCPA.

Mebendazole

0.08

8

14 February 1975

 

 

Mecoprop

0.01

1

3 July 1998

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased kidney weight at the next higher dose.

 

Mecoprop-P

0.04

4

17 January 2001

18-month dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 4 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased kidney weight and chronic nephropathy at the next higher dose.

 

Mefenpyr-diethyl

0.03

2.8

13 May 1997

87-week dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 2.8 mg/kg bw/d was based on hepatocellular hypertrophy in the liver at the next higher dose.

 

Mefentrifluconazole

0.05

5

27 November 2017

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical chemistry effects (elevated ALP, decreased PTT and platelet counts) secondary to liver toxicity at the next higher dose.

 

Meloxicam

0.0001

0.125 [LOAEL]

5 February 1999

A segment III (perinatal and post-natal toxicity) reproduction study in rats; clinical signs, prolonged gestation and delivery duration, stillbirths and reduced pup viability at the lowest tested dose of 0.125 mg/kg bw/d.

 

Mepiquat

0.15

15

30 August 1991

1-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 15 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced pup survival and weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Mesosulfuron-methyl

1

100

27 May 2002

18-month dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 100 mg/kg bw/d was based on oligospermia in the epididymides at the next higher dose.

 

Mesotrione

0.5

50

10 May 2017

18-month dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 50 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain in males at the next higher dose.

 

Metalaxyl

0.03

3

7 May 1981

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d based on increased liver weight at the next higher dose.

 

Metaldehyde

0.005

5

11 September 1986

 

 

Metamitron

0.03

3

4 December 2017

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d based on increased plasma cholesterol levels at the next higher dose (EFSA 2008).

 

Metarhizium Anisopliae var. Acridum (isolate FI-985)

 

 

4 September 2003

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Metazachlor

0.2

17.6

15 July 2016

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 17.6 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced food consumption and bodyweight gain, increased liver weight with enlarged hepatocytes and hepatocyte vacuolation, and decreased haemoglobin concentration at the next higher dose.

 

Methabenzthiazuron

0.05

5

22 November 1989

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain and histopathological lesions (steatosis, necrosis, fibrosis and granulocyte foci) in the liver in conjunction with elevated serum levels of ALT at the next higher dose.

 

Methamidophos

0.0003

0.03

30 January 2004

8-week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.03 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of plasma, RBC and brain ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Methidathion

0.002

0.16

31 May 2004

3-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL 0.16 mg/kg bw/d was based on evidence of liver cholestasis and inhibition of RBC ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Methiocarb

0.002

0.2

1 March 2000

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL 0.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of plasma ChE activity and reduced food consumption at the next higher dose.

 

Methomyl

0.02

 0.1(H)

5 March 2007

Human acute (capsule) study; a NOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw was based on significant and dose related RBC AChE inhibition at the next higher dose.

Source; JMPR 2001.

Methoprene

0.4

35

14 January 2000

18-month dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 35 mg/kg bw/d was based on pigment deposition in the liver at the next higher dose.

 

Methoxychlor

0.1 (TDI)

JMPR'94

21 October 2003

 

Tolerable daily intake. A conventional ADI not maintained as methoxychlor is no longer used in agricultural practice. A TDI is maintained to enable potential dietary exposure assessments to be undertaken.

Methoxyfenozide

0.1

10

12 January 2001

89-99 week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced RBC and increased liver weight at the next higher dose. 1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on an increase in methaemoglobin (heme group in RBC contains iron in the ferric (Fe3+) state and not the usual ferrous (Fe2+) state) and platelet count and reduced RBC at the next higher dose.

 

Methyl benzoquat

0.05

100

10 November 1977

 

 

Methyl bromide

0.0004

0.4

14 September 2001

3-month gavage rat study; a NOAEL of 0.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical signs at the next higher dose.

 

1-Methylcyclopropene

 

 

10 October 2003

There was insufficient information to establish an ADI, however, based on its proposed pattern of use the dietary intake is likely to be low.

 

Metiram

0.02

5

10 February 1988

13-week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on atrophy of skeletal muscle fibres, decreased thyroxine (T4) levels and altered thyroid function at the next higher dose.

 

Metolachlor

0.08

7.5

12 November 1987

 

 

Metosulam

0.05

5

18 January 1993

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased kidney weight and lesions (tubular epithelial hyperplasia, nuclear pleomorphism of the proximal tubule) at the next higher dose. Similar kidney lesions were also observed in a 2-gen reproduction rat study.

 

Metrafenone

0.25

25

13 April 2010

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 25 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain, increased liver weight with centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy and eosinophilic hepatocellular alterations at the next higher dose.

 

Metribuzin

0.02

2

4 November 1982

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d for increased absolute and relative weight of the heart at higher dose levels.

 

Metsulfuron-methyl

0.01

1

1 August 1985

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduction in bodyweight at the next higher dose.

 

Mevinphos

0.002

0.015 (H)

29 October 1998

30-day oral human study; a NOAEL of 0.015 mg/kg bw/d was based on the inhibition of RBC ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Milbemectin

0.007

0.7

29 August 2005

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.7 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased kidney weight and endometrial polyps at the next higher dose.

 

Molinate

0.002

0.2

5 November 1986

3-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on testicular degeneration at the next higher dose.

 

Monensin

0.01

1.25

10 November 1977

 

 

Monepantel

0.03

2.96

10 November 2009

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 2.96 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased thyroid weight, increased liver pigmentation, reduced serum A/G ratio and increased alkaline phosphatase activity at the next higher dose.

 

Monosodium Methylarsonate (MSMA)

0.0005

0.5

10 November 1994

3-month dietary rat studies; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on lesions (follicular epithelial hypertrophy) in the thyroid gland at the next higher dose.

 

Morantel

0.01

1.2

26 November 2002

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain, food consumption and food conversion efficiency at the next higher dose. 2-year oral toxicity dog study; a NOAEL of 1.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased adrenal and liver weights at the next higher dose.

 

Moxidectin

0.01

1

7 June 2004

3-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.3 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced weight gain at the next higher dose. 1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1.12 mg/kg bw/d was based on absence of any adverse effects at the highest tested dose. Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Myclobutanil

0.03

2.6

12 November 1987

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2.6 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced testicular weight at the next higher dose.

 

Back to top

N

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Naphthalophos

0.0001

0.25

7 December 1971

 

 

Napropamide

0.1

11

29 July 1994

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 11 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain and an increased incidence of altered sinusoidal lining cells (spongiosis hepatis) at the next higher dose.

 

Narasin

0.01

1.5

5 August 1983

1-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Neomycin

0.06

6 (JECFA'96)

28 February 1986

3-month dietary guinea pigs study; a NOAEL of 6 mg/kg bw/d was based on ototoxicity (inner ear damage) observed at the next higher dose.

 

Nicarbazin

2

240

4 November 1982

2-year dog study; a NOAEL of 240 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver enzyme (ALT) levels at the next higher dose.

 

Niclosamide

0.1

14 (H)

20 September 2016

Short term repeat dose human therapeutic study; a LOAEL of 14 mg/kg bw/d was based on the lowest effective therapeutic (anthelmintic) dose in humans.

 

Nitroxynil

0.02

2

20 August 1974

 

 

Norflurazon

0.02

1.5

1 November 1984

 

 

Norgestomet

0.0000005

0.001

5 December 1985

84-day dietary monkey study; a pharmacological NOAEL of 0.001 mg/kg bw/d was based on hormonal effects (amenorrhoea) at the next higher dose.

 

Novaluron

0.01

1.1

17 January 2001

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on anaemia (reductions in RBC, MCHC and increased reticulocyte count), increased spleen weight and an increased incidence and severity of haemosiderosis in the spleen at the next higher dose.

 

Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of helicoverpa armigera occlusion bodies

 

 

17 December 2003

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

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O

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

n-Octyl bicycloheptene dicarboximide

0.07

7.5

25 May 1995

1-year dietary dog study; a NOEL of 7.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on elevated serum enzyme activity, liver pigmentation and hepatocellular hypertrophy at the next higher dose.

 

Olaquindox

0.06

6

7 May 1981

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 6 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain and reduced testicular weight at the highest tested dose.

 

Omethoate

0.0004

0.04

20 October 2005

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.04 mg/kg bw/d was based on inhibition of plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Ortho-Phenylphenol (see 2-phenylphenol)

 

 

 

 

 

Oryzalin

0.1

12

5 May 1982

 

 

Oxabetrinil

0.005

10

2 May 1985

3-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body and thymus weights at the next higher dose.

 

Oxadiargyl

0.008

0.8

28 June 1999

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.8 mg/kg bw/d was based on histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys at the next higher dose.

 

Oxadiazon

0.05

5

17 August 1989

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on ocular changes, haematological suppression (RBC, Hct, Hb and WBC), liver degeneration (focal necrosis), and tubular nephrosis of kidney at the next higher dose.

 

Oxadixyl

0.01

1.3

2 June 1988

6-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1.3 mg/kg bw/d was based on elevated serum enzyme (Alk phos) level at the next higher dose.

 

Oxamyl

0.002

0.2

18 May 1993

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced foetal bodyweight at the next higher dose.

 

Oxathiapiprolin

4

411

30 July 2015

2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 411 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased interval to preputial separation in males at the next higher dose.

 

Oxfendazole

0.005

0.5

8 October 1990

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on hepatocellular vacuolation at the next higher dose.

 

Oxibendazole

0.01

10

2 June 1998

3-month capsule fed dog study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced food consumption, reduced body weight gains and reduced testes weights at the next higher dose.

 

Oxycarboxin

0.15

15

15 August 1979

 

 

Oxyclozanide

0.002

5

18 March 1976

3-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on vacuolation in brain cells at the highest tested dose.

 

Oxyfluorfen

0.025

2.5

5 August 1982

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduction in thyroid weight and hepatocyte enlargement at the next higher dose.

 

Oxytetracycline

0.03

0.033

10 October 2016

Long history of safe use in human medicine.

Selection of resistant bacterial strains appears to be the most sensitive end-point for use in risk assessment. As humans show little variation with respect to this effect, JECFA concluded that no uncertainty (safety) factor was needed (JECFA-02).

Back to top

P

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Paclobutrazol

0.01

1.4

10 February 1988

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on hepatocellular effects, reduction in bodyweight gain and reduced serum triglyceride levels at the next higher dose.

Paraquat (as cation)

0.004

0.45

27 June 2003

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.45 mg/kg bw/d was based on pulmonary lesions at the next higher dose.

Pebulate

0.007

0.7

5 December 1990

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.7 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose. 2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 0.75 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

Penconazole

0.007

0.71

6 February 1986

2-year dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 0.71 mg/kg bw/d was based on the increased weight of prostate and adrenal glands at the next higher dose.

Pencycuron

0.02

2

23 May 1994

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver, adrenal, kidney, testes and thyroid weights at the next higher dose.

Pendimethalin

0.1

12.5

18 February 1987

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 12.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased serum alkaline phosphatase, liver weight and hepatic lesions at the next higher dose.

Penflufen

0.02

4 [LOAEL]

10 October 2012

2-year dietary rat study; based on an increased incidence of histiocytic sarcomas at the lowest tested dose 4 mg/kg bw/d.

Penthiopyrad

0.1

11

1 February 2012

2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 11 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain, increased adrenal weight and an increased incidence of cortical hypertrophy at the next higher dose.

Permethrin

0.05

5

29 May 1986

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical signs, body and ovarian weights and clinical chemistry findings at the next higher dose. 1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d based on reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose.

Phenmedipham

0.03

3.4

13 April 2011

1-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 3.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced RBC, Hct, Hb and haemosiderin deposition in the liver at the next higher dose.

d-Phenothrin

0.05

5

1988

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on hepatocellular hypertrophy and focal degeneration of the adrenal cortex at the next higher dose.

2-Phenylphenol

0.4

39

21 October 2003

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 39 mg/kg bw/d was based reduced bodyweight gain, hyperplasia of the urinary bladder and carcinogenicity of the urinary bladder in male rats.

Phenothrin

0.02

2.5

10 February 1988

 

Phorate

0.0005

0.05

30 August 1991

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.05 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced plasma and brain ChE activity at the next higher dose.

Phosmet

0.01

1

12 November 1987

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced plasma, RBC and brain ChE activity at the next higher dose.

Picloram

0.07

7

18 February 1987

6-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 7 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased relative liver weight at the next higher dose.

Picolinafen

0.007

1.4 [LOAEL]

1 August 2000

1-year dietary dog study; based on reduced body weight gain at the lowest tested dose of 1.4 mg/kg bw/d.

Pinoxaden

0.1

10

29 August 2005

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d based on reduced serum phosphate levels and thymus atrophy at higher doses.

Piperonyl butoxide

0.1

16

20 March 1997

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 16 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain, liver hypertrophy and increased plasma AP activity at the next higher dose.

Pirimicarb

0.002

0.4

10 September 1987

3-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on a slight increase in megalobasts (large, abnormally developed red blood cells) in the bone marrow at the next higher dose.

Pirimiphos-methyl

0.02

0.25 (H)

30 August 1991

28-and 56-day oral human studies; a NOAEL of 0.25 mg/kg bw/d was based on the absence of any adverse effects at the highest tested dose of 0.25 mg/kg bw/d.

Porcine gonadotrophins

 

 

25 June 2002

 

Porcine somatotropin

 

 

29 August 1991

 

Prallethrin

0.02

2.5

18 January 1993

1-year capsule fed dog study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased deposition of lipofuscin in kidney and bladder at the next higher dose.

Praziquantel

0.02

20

22 June 1995

13-week capsule fed dog study; a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased relative liver and thyroid weights at the next higher dose.

Prochloraz

0.01

1

5 August 1982

 

Procymidone

0.03

2.5

13 December 2004

1-gen reproductive rat study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased (parental) testes weights and reduced epididymides and prostate weights at the next higher dose.

Prodiamine

0.05

5

22 December 1994

3-month and 1-year dietary dog studies; an overall NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight (incl. centrilolobular necrosis), WBC and platelets, and reduced thymus weight at the next higher dose.

Profenofos

0.0001

0.0072

4 February 1982

6-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.0072 mg/kg bw/d was based on a reduction in plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

Profoxydim

0.05

5

29 November 2006

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on decreased alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol levels and mild anaemia (reduced Hct, RBC, and Hb) at the next higher dose.

Prohexadione-calcium

0.2

20

20 December 2007

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 18.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain and food conversion efficiency, abnormal haematology, clinical chemistry and thyroid histopathology at the next higher dose. 1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg bw/d was based on abnormal haematology, clinical chemistry and renal histopathology at the next higher dose.

Prometryn

0.03

3

17 May 1990

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on fatty changes in the liver at the next higher dose.

Propachlor

0.02

2

11 August 1988

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased thyroid and parathyroid weights at the next higher dose.

Propamocarb

0.4

39

26 November 2015

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 39 mg/kg bw/d was based on vacuolization in epididymes, lacrimal glands, lymph nodes, oesophageal glands, salivary glands and uterine cervix at the next higher dose.

Propanil

0.2

20

19 February 1981

 

Propaquizafop

0.003

0.3

26 November 1992

80-week dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 0.3 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight at the next higher dose.

Propargite

0.002

2

17June 1999

20-month dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on a transient cell proliferative response (increased jejunal smooth muscle cells) at the next higher dose.

Propazine

0.02

1.5

16 June 1986

3-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight at the next higher dose.

Propetamphos

0.001

0.1

14 February 1985

6-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on a reduction of plasma and RBC ChE activity at the next higher dose.

Propiconazole

0.07

7

30 August 2018

The ADI is based on a NOAEL of 7mg/kg bw per day derived from a two-generation toxicity study in rats where reduced body weights occurred in the F2 generation at the next highest dose. A 100-fold uncertainty factor has been applied. This choice of NOAEL is supported by NOAELs of 11mg/kg bw per day in a 24-month study in mice, and 18mg/kg bw per day in a 2-year study in rats. This ADI is considered to be adequately protective against the local effects on the gastrointestinal tract observed in dogs (NOAEL, 1.9mg/kg bw per day).

Propineb

0.0005

0.05 for PTU

15 February 2007

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.05 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased cholesterol levels and increased plasma protein levels at the next higher dose.

Propoxur

0.02

0.2 (H)

5 November 1986

Acute dose human study; a NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg bw was based on inhibition of plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

Propylene oxide

0.006

2.9

24 July 2006

124-week inhalation rat study; a NOAEL of 30 ppm (equivalent to NOAEL of 2.9 mg/kg bw/d) was based on reduced body weight gain and increased mortality at the next higher dose.

Propylene thiourea (PTU)

0.0005

0.05

2 December 1988

 

Propyzamide

0.04

40

[LOAEL]

11 December 2018

Point of departure was derived using a weight of evidence approach based on:

Acute neurotoxicity LOAEL of 40 mg/kg bw in rats due to increased landing foot splay and decreased motor activity.

Subchronic neurotoxicity NOAEL of 2.4 mg/kg bw/d based on decreased body weight and food consumption in males at the next highest dose.

Chronic toxicity NOAEL of 8.5 mg/kg bw/day with hepatotoxicity, thyroid lesions and ovarian lesions occurring at higher doses.

Proquinazid

0.01

1.2

6 December 2011

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on alteration/degeneration, cholangiofibrosis, fatty change, hyperplasia of oval cells and/or bile ducts at the next higher dose.

Prosulfocarb

0.02

1.9

21 August 2006

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.9 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

Prothioconazole

0.01

1.1

28 March 2006

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy and liver vacuolation with fatty change at the next higher dose.

Prothiofos

0.0001

0.01

29 October 1993

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.01 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

Pydiflumetofen

0.1

10

21 February 2017

1-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain, food consumption and food energy conversion efficiency at the next higher dose.

Pymetrozine

0.006

0.57

8 December 2000

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.57 mg/kg bw/d was based on anaemia and increased blood prothrombin (clotting) time, plasma cholesterol and phospholipid level at the next higher dose.

Pyraclofos

0.001

0.1

29 August 1991

2-year dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced RBC and plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

Pyraclostrobin

0.03

3

26 June 2008

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain at the next higher dose.

Pyraflufen-ethyl

0.2

20

17 December 2004

18-month dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight at the next higher dose. 2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased urinary volume and relative kidney weight and decreased specific gravity in the urine at the next higher dose. Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased mortality at the next higher dose.

Pyrasulfotole

0.01

1

19 October 2007

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on corneal and retinal lesions, increased liver weight, centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy and increased plasma cholesterol at the next higher dose.

Pyrethrins (pyrethrum extracts)

0.04

4

6 December 2018

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 4 mg/kg bw/d was based on an increased incidence of benign tumours of the skin, liver and thyroid observed at the next higher dose.

Pyridaben

0.01

1

13 August 1992

3-mo and 1-year dog (capsule) studies; the overall NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on clinical signs (ptyalism) and bodyweight loss at the next higher dose.

Pyridate

0.2

18

20 June 1991

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 18 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced feed intake and lower bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

Pyrimethanil

0.2

17

1 November 1995

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 17 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain and food consumption at the next higher dose.

Pyriofenone

0.09

9

26 November 2014

1-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 9 mg/kg bw/d was based on changes indicative of altered liver function; a decrease in bilirubin and a decrease in alkaline phosphatase at the next higher dose. 2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 9 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased incidence of chronic nephropathy of the kidneys at the next higher dose.

Pyriproxyfen

0.07

7

11 March 1994

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 7 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain, transient increases in clinical chemistry parameters and increased relative liver weight at the next higher dose.

Pyrithiobac sodium

0.2

21

18 May 1995

18-month dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 21 mg/kg bw/d was based on elevated peroxisomal beta-oxidation rates at the next higher dose.

Pyroxasulfone

0.02

2

10 February 2017

1-year capsule fed dog study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on impaired hind limb function, ataxia, hind limb twitching and tremors at the next higher dose.

Pyroxsulam

1

100

14 April 2008

18-month dietary mouse study, a NOAEL of 100 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased absolute and relative liver weight associated with histopathological changes (increased incidence of clear cell foci of alteration) at the next higher dose.

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Q

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Quinclorac

0.3

35

13 September 2004

1-year dietary dog study; the NOAEL of 35 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced food conversion efficiency, lower plasma creatinine levels and increased kidney weight at the next higher dose.

 

Quinoxyfen

0.2

20

15 January 2002

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased organ weights, increased incidence of severe chronic progressive glomerulonephropathy and enhanced growth of testicular tumours at the next higher dose. 1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 20 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain, increased liver weight, liver pathological changes and anaemia at the next higher dose.

 

Quintozene

0.007

0.7

10 September 1987

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.7 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight with cholestatic hepatosis and increased serum AP levels at the next higher dose.

 

Quizalofop-ethyl

0.01

1.25

12 November 1987

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.25 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight (heptocyte hypertrophy) at the next higher dose.

 

Quizalofop-P-tefuryl

0.01

1.3

14 November 1996

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.3 mg/kg bw/d was based on the induction of peroxisome proliferation with accompanying histopathological changes in the liver and tumourigenesis in the liver and testis at the next higher dose.

 

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R

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Ractopamine

0.001

0.125

30 July 2002

1-year gavage monkey study; a NOAEL of 0.125 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased heart rates and lower relative heart weight at the next higher dose. Single-dose human study; a NOAEL of 0.133 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased heart rate and cardiac output at the next higher dose.

 

Rimsulfuron

0.02

1.6

24 June 1997

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1.6 mg/kg bw/d was based on biochemical changes, reduced body weight gain and testicular degeneration at the next higher dose.

 

Robenidine

0.005

10

17 September 1997

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight at the next higher dose.

 

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S

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

 

 

4 September 2002

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Saflufenacil

0.05

5

13 February 2017

18-month dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on microcytic hypochromic anaemia at the next higher dose.

 

Salinomycin

0.01

1

12 November 1981

 

 

Sedaxane

0.11

11

24 April 2011

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 11 mg/kg bw/d was based on decreased hind grip strength, increased liver weight, increased incidences of hepatocyte hypertrophy and eosinophilic foci, and thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy, basophilic colloid and epithelial desquamation at the next higher dose.

 

Semduramicin

0.003

0.3

11 June 1997

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.3 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased blood urea nitrogen, plasma ALT and SDH levels and WBC counts, hypertension and ocular changes at the next higher dose.

 

Sethoxydim

0.18

18

5 August 1982

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 18 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased relative and absolute liver weight that was associated with fatty degeneration and hepatocyte swelling at the higher dose.

 

Siduron

0.025

2.5

2 March 1994

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on histopathological effects (focal tubular atrophy and multinucleated spermatocytes in the testes and thyroid inflammation) at the next higher dose.

 

Simazine

0.005

0.5

5 December 1990

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain and haematological effects (reduced RBC, Hb and Hct) at the next higher dose.

 

Spectinomycin

1

100

5 August 1983

 

 

Spinetoram

0.06

6

5 May 2008

28-day dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 6 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced food consumption and body weight gain, vacuolization of macrophages, multifocal bone marrow necrosis and non-regenerative anaemia at the next higher dose.

 

Spinosad

0.02

2.4

2 May 1997

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on thyroid vacuolation at the next higher dose.

 

Spiramycin

0.75

75

9 February 1978

 

 

Spirotetramat

0.05

5

18 August 2008

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on an increased incidence of thymus involution at the next higher dose.

 

Spiroxamine

0.02

2.5

2 July 2001

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on enlarged liver cells (hepatocytomegaly) and eye changes (cataracts and lenticular opacity) and mild anaemia (reduced RBC, Hb and Hct) at the next higher dose.

 

Streptomycin (and dihydrostreptomycin)

0.05

5 (JECFA '97)

28 June 2001

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on decreased body weight gains at the next highest dose of 10 mg/kg bw/d dihydrostreptomycin.

NOAEL based on a study performed with dihydrostreptomycin due to the close relatedness of the two drugs.

Streptomyces lydicus

 

 

7 June 2016

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Sulfadiazine

0.02

37.5

20 May 1993

Developmental rat study; a NOAEL of 37.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced fetal bodyweight and C-R length at the next higher dose.

 

Sulfadimidine

0.02

2

20 May 1993

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on an increase in thyroid weight (incl. follicular cell hyperplasia and multilocular cysts) at the next higher dose.

 

Sulfadoxine

0.05

50

22 May 1995

3-month gavage monkey study; a NOAEL of 50 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weights at the next higher dose.

 

Sulfaquinoxaline

0.01

1

24 July 1997

3-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased thyroid weights at the next higher dose.

 

Sulfometuron-methyl

0.02

2.5

29 August 1991

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on haematological (lower RBC, Hct) and bile duct (hyperplasia and fibrosis) effects at the next higher dose.

 

Sulfosulfuron

0.2

24

119 December 1997

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 24 mg/kg bw/d was based on induced pathology in the kidneys and urinary bladder and associated biochemical and urinary findings at the next higher dose.

 

Sulfoxaflor

0.04

4.24

27 June 2013

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 4.24 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased serum cholesterol and histopathological liver effects at the next higher dose.

 

Sulfuryl Fluoride

0.01

20 ppm

25 August 2006

2-year inhalation rat study; a NOAEL of (20 ppm) (approximately equivalent to a systemic exposure at 1.4 mg/kg bw/d) was based on effects on the kidney, brain, bone and survival at the next higher dose.

 

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T

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Tebuconazole

0.03

2.96

27 August 2010

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 2.96 mg/kg bw/d was based on lenticular opacity and histopathological effects in the adrenals (hypertrophy of zona fasciculata cells) at the next higher dose.

 

Tebufenozide

0.02

1.8

9 October 1996

2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 1.8 mg/kg bw/d for parental toxicity was based on histopathological lesions in the spleen (congestion, pigment, and extra-medullary haematopoiesis) at the next higher dose.

 

Tebufenpyrad

0.002

0.2

15 January 1993

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased relative and absolute liver weights at the next higher dose.

 

Tebuthiuron

0.07

7

14 February 1985

2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 7 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain in adults and pups at the next higher dose.

 

Temephos

0.1

1 (H)

10 February 1988

4-week human study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on a reduction in plasma ChE activity and clinical signs at the next higher dose.

 

Tepraloxydim

0.05

5

19 May 2002

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased ovary weights and increased incidence of ovarian cysts at the next highest dose of 600 ppm.

 

Terbacil

0.06

6.25

12 November 1987

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 6.25 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased relative liver weight at the next higher dose.

 

Terbufos

0.0002

0.0025

26 November 1992

6-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.0025 mg/kg bw/d was based on plasma ChE inhibition at the next higher dose.

 

Terbuthylazine

0.003

0.35

4 May 2001

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL 0.35 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain and food consumption at the next higher dose.

 

Terbutryn

0.1

10

29 May 1986

6-month (capsule) dog study; a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d was based on CNS (salivation, hyper-responsiveness to auditory stimuli & apprehensive behaviour) and intestinal effects (duodenal mucosal thickening) at the next higher dose.

 

α-terpinene

0.03

30

12 August 2010

Based on a NOEL of 30 mg/kg/d in a embryo-/foetotoxicity study with α-terpinene, based on delayed ossification, reduced kidney weight and skeletal anomalies and using a 1000-safety factor.

 

1000-fold safety factor including a 10-fold safety factor to account for the seriousness of the critical health effect concern (ie developmental toxicity)

Tetraconazole

0.004

0.4

12 December 2002

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on histopathological changes in the liver (hepatocyte enlargement, eosinophilic hepatocytes, cystic degeneration and bile duct hyperplasia) at the next higher dose.

 

Tetramethrin

0.02

2

14 August 1992

2-year dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced pituitary and thyroid/parathyroid weight at the next higher dose.

 

Tetraniliprole

0.9

88

29 May 2020

12-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 88 mg/kg bw/d was based on decreased body weights, clinical chemistry changes and slight histopathology changes in the adrenal gland at the next higher dose.

 

Thiabendazole

0.3

3 (H)

2 June 1988

24-week capsule human study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on an absence of any adverse effects at this dose (the highest tested).

 

Thiacloprid

0.01

1.2

20 July 2001

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on liver toxicity and thyroid changes (follicular epithelial hypertrophy) secondary to liver enzyme induction at the next higher dose.

 

Thiamethoxam

0.02

2

14 April 2000

2-generation reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gains in the pups at the next higher dose.

 

Thidiazuron

0.02

2.5

20 June 1991

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on haematological effects (haemolytic anaemia) at the next higher dose.

 

Thifensulfuron

0.01

1.25

16 February 1989

2-year rat dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.25 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Thiobencarb

0.01

1

10 November 1989

1-year (capsule) dog study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Thiodicarb

0.03

3

5 August 1983

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased incidence of pituitary cysts at the next higher dose. 2-year dietary mouse study; a NOAEL of 3 mg/kg bw/d based on increased mortality at the next higher dose.

 

Thiophanate-methyl

0.08

8

15 February 2011

1-year oral capsule fed dog study; a NOAEL of 8 mg/kg bw/d was based on thyroid hyperplasia observed at the next higher dose. 2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 8 mg/kg bw/d was based on thyroid hyperplasia and thyroid tumours.

 

Thiram

0.004

0.4

30 March 1995

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on neurological disturbances, anaemia and changes in the liver at the next higher dose.

 

Tilmicosin

0.002

4

13 August 1992

1-year capsule fed dog study; a NOAEL of 4 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduction in bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Tolclofos-methyl

0.05

5

10 February 1988

6-month dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced plasma ChE activity at the next higher dose.

 

Tolfenamic acid

0.005

0.5 (H)

16 January 2001

Single dose human therapeutic study; a LOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on the lowest effective therapeutic (antipyretic) dose in humans.

 

Toltrazuril

0.002

1 [LOAEL]

31 December 2019

2-year dietary rat study; based on pre-neoplastic lesions in the uterus at the LOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d,

A total uncertainty factor of 500 has been applied.

Topramezone

0.004

0.4

16 June 2016

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on effects in the eye (corneal opacity and chronic keratitis), increased kidney weights and an increased incidence of thyroid lesions (diffuse follicular cell hypertrophy, follicular cell hyperplasia and adenoma/carcinoma) at the next higher dose. Supported by two studies: 2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 0.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on corneal opacity, increased liver, kidney and thyroid weights at the next higher dose. Developmental rabbit study; a NOAEL of 0.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on incomplete ossification at the next higher dose.

 

Tralkoxydim

0.005

0.5

29 August 1991

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased adrenal weight and histopathological lesions (vacuolation) at the next higher dose.

 

Transfluthrin

0.003

0.25

16 October 1995

53-week dietary dog study; a NOAEL of0.25 mg/kg bw/d was based on the absence of treatment-related changes at 0.25 mg/kg bw/d.

 

Triadimefon

0.03

3.4

25 August 2017

3-month dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 3.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on hyperactivity at the next higher dose.

JMPR 2004.

Triadimenol

0.06

6.25

2 June 1988

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 6.25 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced body weight gain, increased liver enzyme activity (ALT, AST, glutamate dehydrogenase) at the next higher dose.

 

Triallate

0.005

0.5

1 December 1988

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced liver weight and testicular changes at the next higher dose.

 

Triasulfuron

0.005

0.5

14 February 1991

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Tribenuron-methyl

0.01

0.95

15 April 1994

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.95 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced bodyweight gain and food energy conversion at the next higher dose.

 

Trichlorfon

0.002

0.2

29 May 1986

10-year dietary monkey study; a NOAEL of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced plasma and RBC ChE activity, haematological and thyroid wt effects at the next higher dose.

 

Triclabendazole

0.002

0.15

23 May 1996

2-generation gavage rat study; a NOAEL of 0.15 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased pup mortality at the next higher dose.

 

Triclopyr

0.005

0.5

5 November 1986

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced phenolsulfonphthalein excretion, increased plasma BUN and creatinine at the next higher dose.

 

Trifloxystrobin

0.05

5

29 September 1998

1-year capsule fed dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased absolute and relative liver weights, hepatocellular hypertrophy, biochemical changes, diarrhoea, reduced food consumption and reduced weight gain at the next higher dose.

 

Trifloxysulfuron

0.2

15

19 May 2002

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 15 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight, decreased bilirubin and atrophy in the thymus at the next higher dose.

 

Trifludimoxazin

0.1

10.7

28 May 2020

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 10.7 mg/kg bw/d based on altered liver histopathology associated with enlarged livers and increased serum GGT at the next higher dose.

 

Triflumuron

0.007

0.7

2 June 1988

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 0.7 mg/kg bw/d was based on haematological changes (reduced RBC, Hb, Hct & MCHC; increased Ret) at the next higher dose.

 

Trifluralin

0.02

2.5

30 August 1991

2-gen reproduction rat study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on haematological changes (reduced RBC, Hb and PCV) observed at the next higher dose.

 

Triforine

0.02

2.7

10 September 1987

2-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 2.7 mg/kg bw/d was based on haematological changes (reduced Hb), increased erythropoiesis and haemosiderin deposition in the liver and bone marrow at the highest tested dose.

 

Trimethoprim

0.02

33

20 May 1993

3-month gavage monkey study; a NOAEL of 33 mg/kg bw/d was based on anaemia (incl. reticulocytosis) at the next higher dose.

 

Trinexapac-ethyl

0.01

1.4

14 December 1993

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 1.4 mg/kg bw/d was based on reduced testes and uterine weights at the next higher dose.

 

Triticonazole

0.02

2

13 January 1997

13-week dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 2 mg/kg bw/d was based on histopathology of the adrenal cortex at the next higher dose. 1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg bw/d was based on adverse effects on the liver (clinical chemistry and enlargement) at the next higher dose.

 

Tulathromycin

0.005

(M)

11 August 2006

A microbiological ADI was established at 0.005 mg/kg bw/d based on a MIC50 of 1 μg/mL in the most sensitive bacterial genus, Bifidobacterium spp found in the human GI tract.

 

Tylosin

0.3

30

15 January 1993

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 30 mg/kg bw/d was based on pituitary tumours at the next higher dose.

 

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U

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Ulocladium oudemansii

 

 

12 December 2003

 

ADI unnecessary. Naturally occurring organism—residues from its use are unlikely to be distinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.

Uniconazole-P

0.02

1.86

3 February 2000

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1.86 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased liver weight in association with centrilobular hepatocyte enlargement and vacuolation at the next higher dose.

 

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V

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Virginiamycin

0.2

25

10 February 1988

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 25 mg/kg bw/d was based on increased testicular weights at the next higher dose.

 

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W

No results.

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X

No results.

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Y

No results.

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Z

Chemical

ADI (mg/kg bw/d)

NOAEL (mg/kg bw/d)

Date

Study

Comments

Zeranol

0.0002

0.015

10 February 1988

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 0.015 mg/kg bw/d was based on estrogenic changes (stratified squamous epithelium in the cervix) at the next higher dose.

 

Zeta-cypermethrin

 

 

 

See ζ-Cypermethrin.

 

Zilpaterol

0.00004

0.00076[LOAEL]

24 October 2016

Single dose human study; a LOAEL of 0.05 mg/person (equal to 0.00076 mg/kg bw) was based on the observation of tremors at the lowest tested dose.

 

Zineb

0.005

5

27 November 1992

1-year dietary dog study; a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d was based on enlarged thyroids and hyperplastic changes at the highest tested dose.

 

Ziram

0.01

1

21 June 1995

2-year dietary rat study; a NOAEL of 1 mg/kg bw/d was based on atrophy of skeletal muscle at the next higher dose.

 

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